Skip to main content

Epidemiology of Ischemic Heart Disease

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Ischemic Heart Disease
  • 1117 Accesses


IHD is the leading cause of disability and premature deaths worldwide. Men are affected more commonly than women. Onset starts fairly early with clinically manifest disease usually occurring after 50 years of age. Mortality rates rise with increasing age leading to a substantial number of deaths from 60 years of age onwards. Risk factors can be divided into two categories: traditional and emerging. Traditional or established risk factors can be further subdivided into modifiable (cigarette smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia) and non-modifiable (male sex, increasing age, and family history of premature IHD). Emerging risk factors include lifestyle and other clinical characteristics that have shown statistical association in observational studies. These putative risk factors include chronic inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, AIDS, as well as lifestyle choices such as meat consumption, prolonged sitting, and digital screen time. The mild cardioprotective effect of low alcohol consumption is outweighed by its overall harmful effects. Age-standardized rates have shown a decline in developed countries possibly due to improved awareness of heart health and decline in cigarette smoking. However, the total number and rates of IHD continue to rise placing tremendous burden on health systems. IHD could be considered a global health system emergency. Preventive cardiology and accessible primary care may be more cost effective than cardiac tertiary care. Key messages for health promotion and IHD prevention include avoiding cigarette smoking and alcohol; control of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia; and healthful nutrition with an active lifestyle.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 139.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Barstow C, Rice MS, McDivitt JD. Acute Coronary Syndrome: Diagnostic Evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2017 Feb 1;95(3):170–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Didkowska J, Wojciechowska U, Mańczuk M, Łobaszewski J. Lung cancer epidemiology: contemporary and future challenges worldwide. Ann Transl Med 2016 Apr;4(8):150. PMCID: PMC4860480.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Sekhar A, Kuttan A, Borges JC, Rajachandran M. Food for Thought or Feeding a Dogma? Diet and Coronary Artery Disease: a Clinician’s Perspective. Curr Cardiol Rep. 2021 Jul 19;23(9):127.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Temple NJ. Fat, Sugar, Whole Grains and Heart Disease: 50 Years of Confusion. Nutrients 2018 Jan 4;10(1):E39. PMCID: PMC5793267.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Afshin A, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Mozaffarian D. Consumption of nuts and legumes and risk of incident ischemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis1234. Am J Clin Nutr 2014 Jul;100(1):278–288. PMCID: PMC4144102.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Lechner K, von Schacky C, McKenzie AL, Worm N, Nixdorff U, Lechner B, Kränkel N, Halle M, Krauss RM, Scherr J. Lifestyle factors and high-risk atherosclerosis: Pathways and mechanisms beyond traditional risk factors. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Mar;27(4):394–406. PMCID: PMC7065445.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Islam SU, Ahmed MB, Ahsan H, Lee Y-S. Recent Molecular Mechanisms and Beneficial Effects of Phytochemicals and Plant-Based Whole Foods in Reducing LDL-C and Preventing Cardiovascular Disease. Antioxid Basel Switz 2021 May 15;10(5):784. PMCID: PMC8157003.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Blumberg JB, Vita JA, Chen C-YO. Concord Grape Juice Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Dose-Response Relationships. Nutrients 2015 Dec 2;7(12):10032–10052. PMCID: PMC4690071.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Yousefi R, Parandoosh M, Khorsandi H, Hosseinzadeh N, Madani Tonekaboni M, Saidpour A, Babaei H, Ghorbani A. Grape seed extract supplementation along with a restricted-calorie diet improves cardiovascular risk factors in obese or overweight adult individuals: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res PTR 2021 Feb;35(2):987–995. PMID: 33044768.

    Google Scholar 

  10. D’Elia L, Dinu M, Sofi F, Volpe M, Strazzullo P, SINU Working Group, Endorsed by SIPREC. 100% Fruit juice intake and cardiovascular risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective and randomised controlled studies. Eur J Nutr 2021 Aug;60(5):2449–2467. PMCID: PMC8275541.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Tasnim S, Tang C, Musini VM, Wright JM. Effect of alcohol on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jul 1;7:CD012787. PMCID: PMC8130994.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Yarnell JWG, Sweetnam PM, Rumley A, Lowe GDO. Lifestyle and Hemostatic Risk Factors for Ischemic Heart Disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. Am Heart Assoc. 2000 Jan 1;20(1):271–9.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Sekhar A, Kuttan A, Borges JC, Rajachandran M. Food for Thought or Feeding a Dogma? Diet and Coronary Artery Disease: a Clinician’s Perspective. Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 Jul 19;23(9):127. PMID: 34279741.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Mack M, Gopal A. Epidemiology, Traditional and Novel Risk Factors in Coronary Artery Disease. Cardiol Clin. 2014 Aug;32(3):323–32.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. McCormack J, Pfiffner P. The Absolute CVD Risk/Benefit Calculator [Internet]. 2017. Available from:

  16. Wong ND. Cardiovascular risk assessment: The foundation of preventive cardiology. Am J Prev Cardiol 2020 Mar;1:100008. PMCID: PMC8315480.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle. Global Burden of Disease [Internet]. Available from:

  18. Shah T, Palaskas N, Ahmed A. An Update on Gender Disparities in Coronary Heart Disease Care. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2016 May;18(5):28. PMID: 27029220.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, Bittencourt MS, Callaway CW, Carson AP, Chamberlain AM, Chang AR, Cheng S, Das SR, Delling FN, Djousse L, Elkind MSV, Ferguson JF, Fornage M, Jordan LC, Khan SS, Kissela BM, Knutson KL, Kwan TW, Lackland DT, Lewis TT, Lichtman JH, Longenecker CT, Loop MS, Lutsey PL, Martin SS, Matsushita K, Moran AE, Mussolino ME, O’Flaherty M, Pandey A, Perak AM, Rosamond WD, Roth GA, Sampson UKA, Satou GM, Schroeder EB, Shah SH, Spartano NL, Stokes A, Tirschwell DL, Tsao CW, Turakhia MP, VanWagner LB, Wilkins JT, Wong SS, Virani SS, null. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2019 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Circulation. Am Heart Assoc. 2019 Mar 5;139(10):e56–e528.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Einarson TR, Acs A, Ludwig C, Panton UH. Economic Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review. Value Health J Int Soc Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Res 2018 Jul;21(7):881–890. PMID: 30005761.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Gheorghe A, Griffiths U, Murphy A, Legido-Quigley H, Lamptey P, Perel P. The economic burden of cardiovascular disease and hypertension in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2018 Aug 6;18(1):975. PMCID: PMC6090747.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Odegaard AO, Koh WP, Yuan J-M, Gross MD, Pereira MA. Western-style fast food intake and cardiometabolic risk in an Eastern country. Circulation 2012 Jul 10;126(2):182–188. PMCID: PMC4059207.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Yuyun MF, Sliwa K, Kengne AP, Mocumbi AO, Bukhman G. Cardiovascular Diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa Compared to High-Income Countries: An Epidemiological Perspective. Glob Heart 2020 Feb 12;15(1):15. PMCID: PMC7218780.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Barrington-Trimis JL, Braymiller JL, Unger JB, McConnell R, Stokes A, Leventhal AM, Sargent JD, Samet JM, Goodwin RD. Trends in the Age of Cigarette Smoking Initiation Among Young Adults in the US From 2002 to 2018. JAMA Netw Open 2020 Oct 1;3(10):e2019022. PMCID: PMC7539122.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Kim HC. Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Korea. Glob Health Med 2021 Jun 30;3(3):134–141. PMCID: PMC8239378.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Mieno MN, Tanaka N, Arai T, Kawahara T, Kuchiba A, Ishikawa S, Sawabe M. Accuracy of Death Certificates and Assessment of Factors for Misclassification of Underlying Cause of Death. J Epidemiol 2016;26(4):191–198. PMCID: PMC4808686.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muhammad Jawad Hashim .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Hashim, M.J. (2023). Epidemiology of Ischemic Heart Disease. In: Concistrè, G. (eds) Ischemic Heart Disease. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-25878-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-25879-4

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics