Skip to main content

Reference Sample for Porosity Evaluation by Non – Destructive Method – Industrial Computed Tomography

  • 722 Accesses

Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)

Abstract

Nowadays, porosity evaluation is a very important part of the production process in the automotive industry and engineering production. The methods used for internal structure evaluation are destructive and non – destructive. One of the most useful non – destructive methods is industrial computed tomography which is based on the application of the X – ray beam in the process of getting data. This method allows evaluation of the external and internal structure from the same data. However, the accuracy of the scan used for porosity evaluation is still in the process of researching. There are not many possibilities for verification of the results because all the analyses are virtual. One of the methods used for results comparison is destructive metallographic cut but it is possible to compare defects only in 2D. Therefore, the idea of creation of the reference sample for porosity evaluation for CT scanning became the aim of this paper.

The milled aluminium alloy sample was created from 4 identical parts with hemispherical artificially created defects. Individual parts, that is parts in disassembled state, were measured using focus variation microscopy. The assembly of 4 pieces in one part was followed by a CT scanning process. Comparison shown that the highest relative differences up to 26% were achieved in evaluation of the smallest pore volumes. The smallest relative differences, approximately 2%, were achieved in evaluation of the biggest defects.

Keywords

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD   259.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD   329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD   329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions

References

  1. Pokorny, P., Vaclav, S., Petru, J., Kritikos, M.: Porosity Analysis of Additive Manufactured Parts Using CAQ Technology. In Materials, MDPI. Switzerland (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  2. De Chiffre, L., Carmignato, S., Kruth, J.-P., Schmitt, R., Weckenmann, A.: Industrial applications of computed tomography. CIRP Ann. 63(2), 655–677 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2014.05.011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Müller, P., Cantatore, A., Andreasen, J.L., Hiller, J., De Chiffre, L.: Computed tomography as a tool for tolerance verification of industrial parts. In: 12th CIRP Conference on Computer Aided Tolerancing, pp. 125–)132. Elsevier (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Kritikos, M.: Effect of the voxel size on the final scan accuracy in computed tomography. In: Durakbasa, N.M., Gençyılmaz, M.G. (eds.) ISPR -2019. LNME, pp. 422–431. Springer, Cham (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-31343-2_37

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  5. Kritikos, M., Urminsky, J., Buransky, I.: Comparison of optical scanner and computed tomography scan accuracy. In: Durakbasa, N.M., Gençyılmaz, M.G. (eds.) Digitizing Production Systems. LNME, pp. 521–530. Springer, Cham (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-90421-0_44

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  6. Kritikos, M., Kusá, M., Kusý, M.: Evaluation of aluminium alloy (AlSi9Cu3(Fe)) porosity by destructive and non-destructive method (computed tomography). In: Durakbasa, N.M., Gençyılmaz, M.G. (eds.) Digitizing Production Systems. LNME, pp. 181–191. Springer, Cham (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-90421-0_15

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  7. Nicoletto, G., Anzelotti, G., Konečná, R.: X-ray computed tomography vs. metallography for pore sizing and fatigue of cast al-alloys. Procedia Eng. 2(1), 547–554 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2010.03.059

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Hermanek, P., Carmignato, S.: PorositymeasurementsbyX-ray computed tomography: Accuracy evaluation using a calibrated object. In: Materials Science Precision Engineering-journal of The International Societies for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Helmli, F.: Focus variation instruments. In: Optical Measurement of Surface Topography, pp. 146–181. Springer (2011). ISBN 978-3-642-12011-4

    Google Scholar 

  10. Kapłonek, W., Nadolny, K., Królczyk, G.M.: The use of focus-variation microscopy for the assessment of active surfaces of a new generation of coated abrasive tools. Meas. Sci. Rev. 16(2), 42–53 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1515/msr-2016-0007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Alicona: Bruker alicona homepage. https://www.alicona.com/ (2022)

Download references

Acknowledgment

This article was written within the project VEGA 1/0747/19: “Optimization of geometry of cutting tools produced by foundry technology and powder metallurgy to increase durability”.

Acknowledgments also belong to the company Advantage-fl for borrowing the Alicona InfinteFocus SL equipment.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michaela Kritikos .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Kritikos, M., Kusa, M. (2023). Reference Sample for Porosity Evaluation by Non – Destructive Method – Industrial Computed Tomography. In: Durakbasa, N.M., Gençyılmaz, M.G. (eds) Towards Industry 5.0. ISPR 2022. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-24457-5_14

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-24457-5_14

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-24456-8

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-24457-5

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics