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Reference Sample for Porosity Evaluation by Non – Destructive Method – Industrial Computed Tomography

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Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


Nowadays, porosity evaluation is a very important part of the production process in the automotive industry and engineering production. The methods used for internal structure evaluation are destructive and non – destructive. One of the most useful non – destructive methods is industrial computed tomography which is based on the application of the X – ray beam in the process of getting data. This method allows evaluation of the external and internal structure from the same data. However, the accuracy of the scan used for porosity evaluation is still in the process of researching. There are not many possibilities for verification of the results because all the analyses are virtual. One of the methods used for results comparison is destructive metallographic cut but it is possible to compare defects only in 2D. Therefore, the idea of creation of the reference sample for porosity evaluation for CT scanning became the aim of this paper.

The milled aluminium alloy sample was created from 4 identical parts with hemispherical artificially created defects. Individual parts, that is parts in disassembled state, were measured using focus variation microscopy. The assembly of 4 pieces in one part was followed by a CT scanning process. Comparison shown that the highest relative differences up to 26% were achieved in evaluation of the smallest pore volumes. The smallest relative differences, approximately 2%, were achieved in evaluation of the biggest defects.


  • Computed tomography
  • Porosity
  • Defectoscopy
  • Reference sample for porosity evaluation

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This article was written within the project VEGA 1/0747/19: “Optimization of geometry of cutting tools produced by foundry technology and powder metallurgy to increase durability”.

Acknowledgments also belong to the company Advantage-fl for borrowing the Alicona InfinteFocus SL equipment.

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Correspondence to Michaela Kritikos .

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Kritikos, M., Kusa, M. (2023). Reference Sample for Porosity Evaluation by Non – Destructive Method – Industrial Computed Tomography. In: Durakbasa, N.M., Gençyılmaz, M.G. (eds) Towards Industry 5.0. ISPR 2022. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer, Cham.

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  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-24456-8

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