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Emmy Noether (1882–1935): The Most Important Mathematician of All Time

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Women of Genius in Science
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In the fifty years between 1900 and 1950, the laws of physics were rewritten. The further scientists advanced into the world of quantum physics, the more obvious it became that Newton's laws of classical physics only lead to useful results in the world of our daily experience, but not on microscopic scales.

For further details about Emmy Noether, see also: Lars Jaeger, Emmy Noether—Ihr steiniger Weg an die Weltspitze der Mathematik, Südverlag, Konstanz (2022).

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  1. 1.

    Landau’s expert opinion of 1.8.1915 following his circular of 20.7.1915, Mathematical and Scientific Examinations Office, file “Prof. Noether”; available at

  2. 2.

    Emmy Noether, Invariant Variation Problems, Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse (1918), pp. 235–257.

  3. 3.

    Albert Einstein, Collected Papers, 9B, n. 548., Princeton University Press (1987), pp. 774–775.

  4. 4.

    Emily Conover: In Her Short Life, Mathematician Emmy Noether Changed the Face of Physics, posted at on 12 June 2018.

  5. 5.

    From Einstein's obituary of Emmy Noether, which appeared in the New York Times on 4 May 1935 and was originally written in German.

  6. 6.

    Memorial address Weyl gave to Emmy Noether at Goodhart Hall in Bryn Mawr on 26 April 1935.

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Correspondence to Lars Jaeger .

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Jaeger, L. (2023). Emmy Noether (1882–1935): The Most Important Mathematician of All Time. In: Women of Genius in Science . Springer, Cham.

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