Skip to main content

Fertile Ground for Sociocultural Responsivity: Schools and Neighborhoods as Promotive and Inhibiting Environments

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Diversity and Developmental Science

Abstract

Schools and neighborhoods shape youth. Explicitly and implicitly, schools and neighborhoods communicate messages about race, ethnicity, culture, and diversity. Sociocultural compositions of neighborhoods and schools impact diverse youths’ experiences. Peers in each of these environments may shape relationships and youth’s behaviors. A diverse school may provide opportunities for intergroup contact, which can promote developmental competencies or undermine optimal development through stress exposures. This chapter will interrogate how power and privilege are enacted in schools and neighborhoods and across peer groups; discuss approaches to measure their racial, ethnic, and cultural compositions; consider other “out-of-home” contexts where time is spent; and provide recommendations for harnessing these settings’ capacities to respond to the needs of minoritized and marginalized youth.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    We use the term “Black” to refer to individuals of African descent in the United States including the descendants of enslaved Africans, Caribbean Black immigrants and their descendants, and African immigrants and their descendants. We use the term Latinx to refer to individuals of Latin American descent in the United States. We use the term white to refer to individuals of European descent in the United States. We use the term Asian to refer to individuals of Asian descent in the United States.

  2. 2.

    It is important to note that within this study, out-group centering with Latinx concentration did not matter for majority, white and minoritized, Black students.

  3. 3.

    In this study, the authors were interested in the categorizing schools based on racial-ethnic concentration of white students and teachers. Principals’ reports of the racial-ethnic identification of students and teachers were used to determine proportions of each group. Separate-white schools are those with a majority (more than half) of the students in the school are white. Mixed schools include were those with half or less of the students were white whereas the majority (more than half) of the teachers were white. In separate-minority schools, half or less of the students were white and half or less of the teachers were white.

References

  • Aboud, F. E., & Mendelson, M. J. (1996). Determinants of friendship selection and quality: Developmental perspectives. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 87–112). Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Aboud, F. E., Mendelson, M. J., & Purdy, K. T. (2003). Cross-race peer relations and friendship quality. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(2), 165–173. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250244000164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ackert, E. (2018). Segregation paradox? School racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition and racial/ethnic differences in engagement. Social Science Research, 70, 144–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2017.10.010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Akani, B. C. (2016). Portrayals of Black girls in books on puberty for girls (Unpublished honors thesis). University of Michigan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Addison-Wesley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Almarza, D. J. (2001). Contexts shaping minority language students’ perceptions of American history. Journal of Social Studies Research, 25(2), 4–22.

    Google Scholar 

  • An, S., Kim, J. M., & Delacruz, S. (2014). U.S. history through the eyes of South Korean youth. The Social Studies, 105(4), 165–174. https://doi.org/jfsv

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bankston, C. L., III, & Caldas, S. J. (1998). Family structure, schoolmates, and racial inequalities in school achievement. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 715–723.

    Google Scholar 

  • Basáñez, T., Unger, J. B., Soto, D., Crano, W., & Baezconde-Garbanati, L. (2013). Perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and substance use among Hispanic adolescents in Los Angeles. Ethnicity & Health, 18(3), 244–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bellmore, A. D., Nishina, A., Witkow, M. R., Graham, S., & Juvonen, J. (2007). The influence of classroom ethnic composition on same- and other-ethnicity peer nominations in middle school. Social Development, 16(4), 720–740. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00404.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benner, A. D., & Crosnoe, R. (2011). The racial/ethnic composition of elementary schools and young children’s academic and socioemotional functioning. American Educational Research Journal, 48(3), 621–646. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831210384838

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benner, A. D., & Graham, S. (2007). Navigating the transition to multi-ethnic urban high schools: Changing ethnic congruence and adolescents’ school-related affect. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17(1), 207–220. https://doi.org/cg4jpb

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benner, A. D., & Graham, S. (2011). Latino adolescents’ experiences of discrimination across the first 2 years of high school: Correlates and influences on educational outcomes. Child Development, 82(2), 508–519. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01524.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benner, A. D., & Graham, S. (2013). The antecedents and consequences of racial/ethnic discrimination during adolescence: Does the source of discrimination matter? Developmental Psychology, 49(8), 1602. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030557

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benner, A. D., & Wang, Y. (2017). Racial/ethnic discrimination and adolescents’ well-being: The role of cross-ethnic friendships and friends’ experiences of discrimination. Child Development, 88(2), 493–504. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12606

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benner, A. D., & Yan, N. (2015). Classroom race/ethnic composition, family-school connections, and the transition to school. Applied Developmental Science, 19(3), 127–138. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2014.983028

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bennett, P. R. (2011). The relationship between neighborhood racial concentration and verbal ability: An investigation using the institutional resources model. Social Science Research, 40(4), 1124–1141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Browning, C. R., Dirlam, J., & Boettner, B. (2016). From heterogeneity to concentration: Latino immigrant neighborhoods and collective efficacy perceptions in Los Angeles and Chicago. Social Forces, 95(2), 779–807. https://doi.org/f9pwb7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Budescu, D. V., & Budescu, M. (2012). How to measure diversity when you must. Psychological Methods, 17(2), 215–227. https://doi.org/f32r4w

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cabrera, N. L., Milem, J. F., Jaquette, O., & Marx, R. W. (2014). Missing the (student achievement) forest for all the (political) trees: Empiricism and the Mexican American studies controversy in Tucson. American Educational Research Journal, 51(6), 1084–1118. https://doi.org/chxc

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Calzada, E. J., Roche, K. M., White, R. M. B., Partovi, R., & Little, T. D. (2020). Family strengths and Latinx youth externalizing behavior: Modifying impacts of an adverse immigration environment. Journal of Latinx Psychology, 8, 332–248. https://doi.org/frm2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caplan, R. D., & Van Harrison, R. (1993). Person-environment fit theory: Some history, recent developments, and future directions. Journal of Social Issues, 49(4), 253–275.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Carter, R., Leath, S., Butler-Barnes, S. T., Bryd, C. M., Chavous, T. M., Caldwell, C. H., & Jackson, J. S. (2017). Comparing associations between perceived puberty, same-race friends and same-race peers, and psychosocial outcomes among African American and Caribbean Black girls. Journal of Black Psychology, 43(8), 836–862. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798417711024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Choi, Y., Lim, J. H., & An, S. (2011). Marginalized students’ uneasy learning: Korean immigrant students’ experiences of learning social studies. Social Studies Research and Practice, 6(3), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1108/SSRP-03-2011-B0001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clayton, J. K. (2011). Changing diversity in U.S. schools: The impact on elementary student performance and achievement. Education and Urban Society, 43(6), 671–695. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013124510380909

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Collins, P. H. (1989). The social construction of black feminist thought. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 14(4), 745–773.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 139–167.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Brey, C., Musu, L., McFarland, J., Wilkinson-Flicker, S., Diliberti, M., Zhang, A., Branstetter, C., & Wang, X. (2019). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups 2018 (NCES 2019-038). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/

  • Derlan, C. L., & Umaña-Taylor, A. J. (2015). Contextual predictors of African American adolescents’ ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure. Journal of Adolescence, 41, 1–6. https://doi.org/f7fk9b

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Diem, S., Good, M., Smotherson, B., Walters, S. W., & Bonney, V. N. A. (2022). Language and power dynamics: A critical policy analysis of racial and choice discourses in school integration policies. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 30(12), 10.14507/epaa.30.6995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Douglass, S., Mirpuri, S., & Yip, T. (2017). Considering friends within the context of peers in school for the development of ethnic/racial identity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(2), 300–316. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0532-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C. M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2), 90–101. https://doi.org/dk6x49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Echols, L., & Graham, S. (2013). Birds of a different feather: How do cross-ethnic friends flock together? Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 59(4), 461–488. https://doi.org/gmx5w6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eitle, T. M., & Eitle, D. J. (2004). Inequality, segregation, and the overrepresentation of African Americans in school suspensions. Sociological Perspectives, 47(3), 269–287. https://doi.org/10.1525/sop.2004.47.3.269

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Epstein, T. (2000). Adolescents’ perspectives on racial diversity in U.S. history: Case studies from an urban classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 37(1), 185–214. https://doi.org/10.3102/00028312037001185

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feinauer, E., & Whiting, E. F. (2012). Examining the sociolinguistic context in schools and neighborhoods of pre-adolescent Latino students: Implications for ethnic identity. Journal of Language, Identity & Education, 11(1), 52–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Francies, C., & Kelley, B. (2021). State policy options to promote k-12 integration. Education Commission of the States. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED613900.pdf

  • García Coll, C., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnic, K., Wasik, B. H., & Vázquez García, H. (1996). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. Child Development, 67, 1891–1914. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131600

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goldsmith, P. A. (2004). Schools’ racial mix, students’ optimism, and the Black-White and Latino-White achievement gaps. Sociology of Education, 77(2), 121–147. https://doi.org/10.1177/003804070407700202

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graham, S. (2018). Race/ethnicity and social adjustment of adolescents: How (not if) school diversity matters. Educational Psychologist, 53(2), 64–77. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2018.1428805

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graham, S., & Morales-Chicas, J. (2015). The ethnic context and attitudes toward 9th grade math. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 4(1), 1–32.

    Google Scholar 

  • Graham, S., Munniksma, A., & Juvonen, J. (2014). Psychosocial benefits of cross-ethnic friendships in urban middle schools. Child Development, 85(2), 469–483. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gurin, P., Dey, E., Hurtado, S., & Gurin, G. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72(3), 330–367.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Harris, R., & Reynolds, R. (2014). The history curriculum and its personal connection to students from minority ethnic backgrounds. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 46(4), 464–486. https://doi.org/jfsw

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hong, S., Zhang, W., & Walton, E. (2014). Neighborhoods and mental health: Exploring ethnic density, poverty, and social cohesion among Asian Americans and Latinos. Social Science & Medicine, 111, 117–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2014.04.014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hughes, D. L., & Watford, J. A. (2021). Racial regularities: Setting-level dynamics as a source of ethnic-racial socialization. American Journal of Community Psychology, 70, 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12565

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hurd, N. M., Sellers, R. M., Cogburn, C. D., Butler-Barnes, S. T., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2013). Racial identity and depressive symptoms among Black emerging adults: The moderating effects of neighborhood racial composition. Developmental Psychology, 49(5), 938–950. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028826

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Isom Scott, D. A., & Seal, Z. T. (2019). Disentangling the roles of negative emotions and racial identity in the theory of African American offending. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 44(2), 277–308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-018-9453-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, A., Browning, C., Krivo, L., Kwan, M. P., & Washington, H. M. (2016). The role of immigrant concentration within and beyond residential neighborhoods in adolescent alcohol use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45, 17–34. https://doi.org/f76nhm

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jencks, C., & Mayer, S. (1990). The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. In L. E. Lynn & M. F. H. McGeary (Eds.), Inner-city poverty in the United States (pp. 111–186). National Academy Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnston-Gurerrero, M. P., Tran, V., & Combs, L. (2020). Multiracial identities and monoracism: Examining the influence of oppression. Journal of College Student Development, 61(1), 18–33. https://doi.org/ftk6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Juang, L. P., & Alvarez, A. N. (2011). Family, school, and neighborhood: Links to Chinese American adolescent perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 2(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Juang, L. P., & Nguyen, H. H. (2010). Ethnic identity among Chinese-American youth: The role of family obligation and community factors on ethnic engagement, clarity, and pride. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 10(1), 20–38.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jugert, P., Noack, P., & Rutland, A. (2013). Children’s cross-ethnic friendships: Why are they less stable than same-ethnic friendships? European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10(6), 649–662. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2012.734136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Juvonen, J., Nishina, A., & Graham, S. (2006). Ethnic diversity and perceptions of safety in urban middle schools. Psychological Science, 17(5), 393–400. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01718.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Juvonen, J., Kogachi, K., & Graham, S. (2018). When and how do students benefit from ethnic diversity in middle school? Child Development, 89(4), 1268–1282. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12834

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kainz, K., & Pan, Y. (2014). Segregated school effects on first grade reading gains: Using propensity score matching to disentangle effects for African-American, Latino, and European-American students. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29(4), 531–537.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kawabata, Y., & Crick, N. R. (2008). The role of cross-racial/ethnic friendships in social adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 44(4), 1177–1183. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.4.1177

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kelleghan, A., Mali, L., Malamut, S., Badaly, D., Duong, M., & Schwartz, D. (2019). Cross-ethnic friendships, intergroup attitudes, intragroup social costs, and depressive symptoms among Asian American and Latino American youth. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(11), 2165–2178. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01143-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knifsend, C. A., & Juvonen, J. (2014). Social identity complexity, cross-ethnic friendships, and intergroup attitudes in urban middle schools. Child Development, 85(2), 709–721. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465–491. https://doi.org/dx3gcj

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lara-Cinisomo, S., Xue, Y., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2013). Latino youth’s internalising behaviours: Links to immigrant status and neighbourhood characteristics. Ethnicity & Health, 18(3), 315–335. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2012.734278

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, J. C., & Klugman, J. (2013). Latino school concentration and academic performance among Latino children. Social Science Quarterly, 94, 977–1015. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2012.00935.x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, M. J., & Liechty, J. M. (2015). Longitudinal associations between immigrant ethnic density, neighborhood processes, and Latino immigrant youth depression. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 17(4), 983–991. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10903-014-0029-4

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, M., Lam, B. O. Y., & Madyun, N. I. (2017). Effects of different-race exposure in school and neighborhood on the reading achievement of Hmong students in the United States. Urban education, 52(10), 1255–1283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2014.06.005

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee, D. B., Eisman, A. B., Stoddard, S. A., Peckins, M. K., Goldstick, J. E., Hsieh, H. F., et al. (2018). Racial discrimination and cortisol in African American emerging adults: The role of neighborhood racial composition. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(4), 521.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lessard, L. M., Kogachi, K., & Juvonen, J. (2019). Quality and stability of cross-ethnic friendships: Effects of classroom diversity and out-of-school contact. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 48(3), 554–566. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0964-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maereg, T. M., & Witherspoon, D. P. (2022). The interactive relationship between ethnic-racial identity, academic expectations, and neighborhood ethnic-racial concentration: Variation by gender and ethnicity-race (Unpublished masters thesis). Pennsylvania State University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Martinez, W., & Polo, A. (2018). Neighborhood context, family cultural values, and Latinx youth externalizing problems. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 47, 2440–2452. https://doi.org/gd8d3v

  • Mason, M. J., & Korpela, K. (2009). Activity spaces and urban adolescent substance use and emotional health. Journal of Adolescence, 32(4), 925–939. https://doi.org/dzd4c6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1988). The dimensions of residential segregation. Social Forces, 67, 281–315.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Meer, T. V. D., & Tolsma, J. (2014). Ethnic diversity and its effects on social cohesion. Annual Review of Sociology, 40, 459–478. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-071913-043309

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mouw, T., & Entwisle, B. (2006). Residential segregation and interracial friendship in schools. American Journal of Sociology, 112(2), 394–441. https://doi.org/10.1086/506415

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Munniksma, A., & Juvonen, J. (2012). Cross-ethnic friendships and sense of social-emotional safety in a multiethnic middle school: An exploratory study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 58(4), 489–506. https://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2012.0023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nair, R. L., White, R. M. B., Roosa, M. W., & Zeiders, K. H. (2013). Cultural stressors and mental health symptoms among Mexican Americans: A prospective study examining the impact of family and neighborhood context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42, 1611–1623. https://doi.org/ftk7

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neville, H. A., Awad, G. H., Brooks, J. E., Flores, M. P., & Bluemel, J. (2013). Color-blind racial ideology: Theory, training, and measurement implications in psychology. American Psychologist, 68(6), 455. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033282

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pasco, M. C., & White, R. M. B. (2020). A mixed methods approach to examining Mexican-origin adolescents’ use of ethnic-racial labels in neighborhood contexts. Journal of Adolescent Research, 35, 489–520. https://doi.org/ftk8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pasco, M. C., White, R. M. B., Iida, M., & Seaton, E. K. (2021a). A prospective examination of neighborhood social and cultural cohesion and parenting processes on ethnic-racial identity among U.S. Mexican adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 57(5), 783–795. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0001170

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pasco, M. C., White, R. M. B., & Seaton, E. K. (2021b). A systematic review of neighborhood ethnic–racial compositions on cultural developmental processes and experiences in adolescence. Adolescent Research Review, 6, 229–246. https://doi.org/jfxz

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pettigrew, T. F. (2008). Future directions for intergroup contact theory and research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32(3), 187–199. https://doi.org/bnv9w8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Phinney, J. S., Madden, T., & Santos, L. J. (1998). Psychological variables as predictors of perceived ethnic discrimination among minority and immigrant adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(11), 937–953. https://doi.org/fd9cs5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Piaget, J. (2000). Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Childhood Cognitive Development: The Essential Readings, 2, 33–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pitts, D. W. (2005). Diversity, representation, and performance: Evidence about race and ethnicity in public organizations. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 15(4), 615–631.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rastogi, R., & Juvonen, J. (2019). Interminority friendships and intergroup attitudes across middle school: Quantity and stability of Black-Latino ties. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 48, 1619–1630. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01044-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rivas-Drake, D., & Witherspoon, D. (2013). Racial identity from adolescence to young adulthood: Does prior neighborhood experience matter? Child Development, 84, 1918–1932. https://doi.org/f5gv9f

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rothstein, R. (2004). Class and schools: Using social, economic, and educational reform to close the Black-White achievement gap. Teachers College Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roy, A. L. (2018). Intersectional ecologies: Positioning intersectionality in settings-level research. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2018(161), 57–74. https://doi.org/ftk9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rucker, J. M., Neblett, E. W., Jr., & Anyiwo, N. (2014). Racial identity, perpetrator race, racial composition of primary community, and mood responses to discrimination. Journal of Black Psychology, 40(6), 539–562. https://doi.org/10.1177/0095798413499371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Russell, D. W., Clavél, R. D., Cutrona, C. E., Abraham, W. T., & Burzette, R. G. (2018). Neighborhood racial discrimination and the development of major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127, 150–159. https://doi.org/gc63nv

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salas, S., Jones, J. P., Perez, T., Fitchett, P. G., & Kissau, S. (2013). Habla con ellos—Talk to them: Latinas/os, achievement, and the middle grades. Middle School Journal, 45, 18–23. https://doi.org/10.1080/00940771.2013.11461878

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277(5328), 918–924.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seaton, E. K., & Carter, R. (2018). Pubertal timing, racial identity, neighborhood, and school context among Black adolescent females. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(1), 40–50. https://doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seaton, E. K., & Yip, T. (2009). School and neighborhood contexts, perceptions of racial discrimination, and psychological well-being among African American adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 153–163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-008-9356-x

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Seidman, E. (1990). Pursuing the meaning and utility of social regularities for community psychology. In P. Tolan, C. Keys, F. Chertok, & L. A. Jason (Eds.), Researching community psychology: Issues of theory and methods (pp. 91–100). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10073-008

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sladek, M. R., Doane, L. D., & Park, H. (2020). Latino adolescents’ daily bicultural stress and sleep: Gender and school context moderation. Health Psychology, 39(3), 179–189. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/10.1037/hea0000824

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Spencer, M. B. (1995). Old issues and new theorizing about African American youth: A phenomenological variant of ecological systems theory. In R. L. Taylor (Ed.), African-American youth: Their social and economic status in the United States (pp. 37–69). Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson, H. C., McNeil, J. D., Herrero-Taylor, T., & Davis, G. Y. (2005). Influence of perceived neighborhood diversity and racism experience on the racial socialization of black youth. Journal of Black Psychology, 31(3), 273–290. https://doi.org/c9ztvz

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tam, C., & Freisthler, B. (2015). An exploratory analysis of linguistic acculturation, neighborhood, and risk behaviors among children of Southeast Asian immigrants. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 32(4), 383–393. https://doi.org/ggk5jf

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tropp, L. R., White, F., Rucinski, C. L., & Tredoux, C. (2022). Intergroup contact and prejudice reduction: Prospects and challenges in changing youth attitudes. Review of General Psychology, 26(3), 342–360. https://doi.org/10.1177/10892680211046517

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • U.S. Census Bureau. (2018, March 15). New Census Bureau report analyzes U.S. population projections. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/releases/archives/population/cb12-243.html

  • Wang, Y., Benner, A. D., & Boyle, A. E. (2020). Family cultural socialization in childhood: Navigating ethnic/racial diversity and numeric marginalization in school and neighborhood settings. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 28, 449. https://doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000435

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wei, W., Witherspoon, D. P., Hughes, D., & Way, N. (2021). Chinese American adolescents’ academic performance and psychological adjustment: The role of neighborhood and family. Asian American Journal of Psychology, 12(1), 26–40. https://doi.org/10.1037/aap0000215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, F. A., Wooten, B., Man, J., Diaz, H., Rasiah, J., Swift, E., & Wilkinson, A. (2009). Adolescent racial prejudice development: The role of friendship quality and inter-racial contact. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(6), 524–534. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.06.008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, R. M., Deardorff, J., & Gonzales, N. A. (2012). Contextual amplification or attenuation of pubertal timing effects on depressive symptoms among Mexican American girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 50(6), 565–571. https://doi.org/g7tm

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, R. M., Deardorff, J., Liu, Y., & Gonzales, N. A. (2013). Contextual amplification or attenuation of the impact of pubertal timing on Mexican-origin boys' mental health symptoms. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(6), 692–698. https://doi.org/f5hm8z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, R. M. B., Knight, G. P., Jensen, M., & Gonzales, N. A. (2018a). Ethnic socialization in neighborhood contexts: Implications for ethnic attitude and identity development among Mexican-origin adolescents. Child Development, 89(3), 1004–1021. https://doi.org/gdkgpb

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, R. M. B., Zeiders, K. H., & Safa, M. D. (2018b). Neighborhood structural characteristics and Mexican-origin adolescents’ development. Development and Psychopathology, 30, 1679–1698. https://doi.org/d7ph

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • White, R. M. B., Pasco, M. C., Korous, K. M., & Causadias, J. M. (2020). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association of neighborhood ethnic-racial concentrations and adolescent behaviour problems in the U.S. Journal of Adolescence, 78, 73–84. https://doi.org/ftmc

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, J. L., & Hamm, J. V. (2018). Peer group ethnic diversity and social competencies in youth attending rural middle schools. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 38(6), 795–823. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431617699945

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Williams, D. R., Neighbors, H. W., & Jackson, J. S. (2003). Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 200–208. https://doi.org/dtvcm6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Witherspoon, D. P., & Hughes, D. L. (2014). Early adolescent perceptions of neighborhood: Strengths, structural disadvantage, and relations to outcomes. Journal of Early Adolescence, 34(7), 866–895. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431613510404

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Witherspoon, D. P., Seaton, E. K., & Rivas-Drake, D. (2016). Neighborhood characteristics and expectations of racially discriminatory experiences among Black adolescents. Child Development, 87(5), 1367–1378. https://doi.org/f88h6g

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Witherspoon, D. P., Smalls, C., Wei, W., & Hughes, D. (2022). Neighborhood-level predictors of African American and Latinx parents’ ethnic-racial socialization. American Journal of Community Psychology, 69, 183–200. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajcp.12555

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dawn P. Witherspoon .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Witherspoon, D.P., White, R.M.B., Nair, R., Maereg, T.M., Wei, W. (2023). Fertile Ground for Sociocultural Responsivity: Schools and Neighborhoods as Promotive and Inhibiting Environments. In: Witherspoon, D.P., Stein, G.L. (eds) Diversity and Developmental Science. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-23163-6_8

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics