Skip to main content

Responsible Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence for the Cognitive Enhancement of Knowledge Workers

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
HCI International 2022 – Late Breaking Papers: Interacting with eXtended Reality and Artificial Intelligence (HCII 2022)

Part of the book series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ((LNCS,volume 13518))

Included in the following conference series:

  • 1779 Accesses

Abstract

Over the past decade, the demand for high-performing knowledge workers (KWs) has grown at an unprecedented rate and shows no signs of slowing. Researchers, designers, engineers, and executives are examples of KWs that perform non-routine, creative work. The work outcomes of KWs as individuals, teams, and organizations play a vital role in the global economy and quality of life. One of the most significant challenges KWs face is balancing stressors on their cognitive and emotional well-being while seeking high productivity. Human cognitive enhancement proposes improving human abilities to acquire and generate knowledge and understand the world. Our cognitive enhancement application for KWs, called the Flow Choice Architecture (FCA), senses their cognitive and affective states, adds context, and recommends appropriate nudges to maximize their healthy flow time. This study provides insights into how FCA implements Human-Centered Design and Responsible Artificial Intelligence (RAI) principles as an interactive AI-powered application that promotes healthy flow performance during knowledge work. FCA applied the RAI tools from Microsoft’s Human-AI eXperience Toolkit to evaluate FCA-specific scenarios. By defining FCA as a hybrid recommendation system and conversational AI agent, we found the following categories of human-AI failure scenarios in FCA: input errors, trigger errors, delimiter errors, and response generation errors. We recommend simulating these errors and undesirable behaviors to improve the design of explainable nudges, meaningful metrics, and well-tuned triggers. The outcome of this RAI evaluation was a robust FCA system design that meets the needs of KWs and enhances their capability to thrive and flourish at work.

Supported by L3 Harris Institute for Assured Information.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Adler, R.F., Benbunan-Fich, R.: Self-interruptions in discretionary multitasking. Comput. Hum. Behav. 29(4), 1441–1449 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Adomavicius, G., Tuzhilin, A.: Context-aware recommender systems. In: Ricci, F., Rokach, L., Shapira, B. (eds.) Recommender Systems Handbook, pp. 191–226. Springer, Boston, MA (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-7637-6_6

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  3. Alarcon, G.M.: A meta-analysis of burnout with job demands, resources, and attitudes. J. Vocat. Behav. 79(2), 549–562 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Attaran, M., Attaran, S., Kirkland, D.: The need for digital workplace: increasing workforce productivity in the information age. Int. J. Enterp. Inf. Syst. (IJEIS) 15(1), 1–23 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., Sanz-Vergel, A.I.: Burnout and work engagement: the JD-R approach. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav. 1(1), 389–411 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bakker, A.B., Emmerik, H.V., Euwema, M.C.: Crossover of burnout and engagement in work teams. Work. Occup. 33(4), 464–489 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Choudhury, P., Foroughi, C., Larson, B.: Work-from-anywhere: the productivity effects of geographic flexibility. Strateg. Manag. J. 42(4), 655–683 (2021)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Csikszentmihalyi, M.: Flow: the psychology of optimal performance 1990 (1990)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Csikszentmihalyi, M.: Play and intrinsic rewards. In: Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology, pp. 135–153. Springer, Dordrecht (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9088-8_10

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  10. Eskridge, T.C., Weekes, T.R.: Opportunities for case-based reasoning in personal flow and productivity management. In: Watson, I., Weber, R. (eds.) ICCBR 2020. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 12311, pp. 349–354. Springer, Cham (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58342-2_23

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  11. Goldberg, L.S., Grandey, A.A.: Display rules versus display autonomy: emotion regulation, emotional exhaustion, and task performance in a call center simulation. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 12(3), 301 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Hayes, J.: Workplace analytics: surveillance or saviour? Eng. Technol. 12(9), 46–48 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Hong, M.K., Fourney, A., DeBellis, D., Amershi, S.: Planning for natural language failures with the AI playbook. In: Proceedings of the 2021 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1–11 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  14. van den Hout, J.J., Davis, O.C., Weggeman, M.C.: The conceptualization of team flow. J. Psychol. 152(6), 388–423 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Lu, J., Wu, D., Mao, M., Wang, W., Zhang, G.: Recommender system application developments: a survey. Decis. Support Syst. 74, 12–32 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Manly, T., Robertson, I.H., Galloway, M., Hawkins, K.: The absent mind: further investigations of sustained attention to response. Neuropsychologia 37(6), 661–670 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Mark, G., Gudith, D., Klocke, U.: The cost of interrupted work: more speed and stress. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 107–110 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Microsoft: what is the hax toolkit? (2021). https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/haxtoolkit/. Accessed 08 Mar 2022

  19. Murray, A.J., Greenes, K.A.: From the knowledge worker to the knowledge economy: six billion minds co-creating the future. Vine (2007)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Nakamura, J., Csikszentmihalyi, M.: The concept of flow. In: Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology, pp. 239–263. Springer, Dordrecht (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-9088-8_16

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  21. Newport, C.: Deep Work: Rules for Focused Success in a Distracted World. Hachette, UK (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Nguyen, C.T.: How twitter gamifies communication. Appl. Epistemol., pp. 410–436 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Pattyn, N., Neyt, X., Henderickx, D., Soetens, E.: Psychophysiological investigation of vigilance decrement: boredom or cognitive fatigue? Physiol. Behav. 93(1–2), 369–378 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Resnick, P., Varian, H.R.: Recommender systems. Commun. ACM 40(3), 56–58 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Robertson, I.H., Manly, T., Andrade, J., Baddeley, B.T., Yiend, J.: Oops!’: performance correlates of everyday attentional failures in traumatic brain injured and normal subjects. Neuropsychologia 35(6), 747–758 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Salanova, M., Rodríguez-Sánchez, A.M., Schaufeli, W.B., Cifre, E.: Flowing together: a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups. J. Psychol. 148(4), 435–455 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Schneider, C., Weinmann, M., Vom Brocke, J.: Digital nudging: guiding online user choices through interface design. Commun. ACM 61(7), 67–73 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Sunstein, C.R.: Nudging: a very short guide. In: The Handbook of Privacy Studies, pp. 173–180. Amsterdam University Press (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  29. Thaler, R.H., Sunstein, C.R.: Nudge: improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness. Penguin (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  30. Trougakos, J.P., Hideg, I.: Momentary work recovery: the role of within-day work breaks. In: Current perspectives on job-stress recovery. Emerald Group Publishing Limited (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  31. Trougakos, J.P., Hideg, I., Cheng, B.H., Beal, D.J.: Lunch breaks unpacked: the role of autonomy as a moderator of recovery during lunch. Acad. Manag. J. 57(2), 405–421 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ullén, F., et al.: Proneness for psychological flow in everyday life: associations with personality and intelligence. Pers. Individ. Differ. 52(2), 167–172 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Weekes, T., Eskridge, T.C.: A neurofeedback-driven humanoid to support deep work. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Florida Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics, pp. 14–16 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  34. Zaman, S., et al.: Stress and productivity patterns of interrupted, synergistic, and antagonistic office activities. Sci. Data 6(1), 1–18 (2019)

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Troy R. Weekes .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Weekes, T.R., Eskridge, T.C. (2022). Responsible Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence for the Cognitive Enhancement of Knowledge Workers. In: Chen, J.Y.C., Fragomeni, G., Degen, H., Ntoa, S. (eds) HCI International 2022 – Late Breaking Papers: Interacting with eXtended Reality and Artificial Intelligence. HCII 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 13518. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-21707-4_41

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-21707-4_41

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-21706-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-21707-4

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics