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Face Transplantation: Cleveland Clinic Experience

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Reconstructive Transplantation


In 2004, the Cleveland Clinic received the world’s first Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval to perform facial allotransplantation. Since that time, we have performed three face transplants, including the first in the United States. Our results have been favorable demonstrating posttransplant improvement in function, aesthetics, and quality of life. To further establish facial transplantation as a viable reconstructive modality, future efforts should identify optimal recipient selection algorithms, standardized and validated outcome measurements, long-term financial support, and most importantly, less morbid immunosuppression protocols.

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Change history

  • 20 April 2023

    The author’s name Maria Siemionow was unfortunately excluded from the author group in Chapter 3. The initially published version has now been corrected.


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Correspondence to Raffi Gurunian .

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Sinclair, N.R. et al. (2023). Face Transplantation: Cleveland Clinic Experience. In: Gurunian, R., Rampazzo, A., Papay, F., Bassiri Gharb, B. (eds) Reconstructive Transplantation. Springer, Cham.

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  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-21519-3

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