Skip to main content

Political Parties and the Trials of Democracy

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Macedonia’s Long Transition
  • 106 Accesses

Abstract

The third wave of democracy arrived in Europe in the late eighties and the early nineties introducing pluralism and multiparty systems. Macedonia, as a country that seceded from former Yugoslavia, was no exception to this process, introducing multiparty democracy after the independence referendum in 1991. In its evolutionary path, Macedonia changed three electoral models of parliamentary elections, in an attempt to find the most appropriate electoral system that would be suitable for the objective political constellations. In this process, it developed from a majoritarian to a mixed model, ending with a proportional electoral model and later on, including the diaspora in the voting process. Intra-party democracy seems to be the fundamental shortcoming that later, combined with the specificities of Macedonian political culture, provides for a fundamentally malicious mix of public distrust and the clientelistic behaviour of both the political elites and the electorate. Other problems confronting the political climate of the country include: the predominant position of the party elite and the party in office, as well the sultanistic position of the leader within the party structure, and a lack of public trust, and weak social capital. All of these issues have had a negative impact upon Macedonia’s Euro-Atlantic ambitions over the last thirty years.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Belloni, F. P., & Beller, D. C. (1976). The study of party factions as competitive political organizations. The Western Political Quarterly, 29(4), 531–549.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Boucek, F. (2009). Rethinking factionalism—Typologies, intra-party dynamics and three faces of factionalism. Party Politics, 15(4), 455–485.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chaves, M. S., & Stoller, R. (2002). Organizational empowerment versus clientelism. Latin American Perspectives, 29(5), 7–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia. (1991). Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. https://www.sobranie.mk/the-constitution-of-the-republic-of-macedonia-ns_article-constitution-of-the-republic-of-north-macedonia.nspx

  • Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia. (2016). Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. http://www.sobranie.mk/ustav-na-rm.nspx

  • Cross, W., & Blais, A. (2012). Who selects the party leader. Party Politics, 18(2), 127–150.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crutzen, B. S. Y., Castanheira, M., & Sahuguet, N. (2010). Party organization and electoral competition. Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization, 26(2), 212–242.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Čular, G. (2004). Organisational development of parties and internal party democracy in Croatia. Politička Misao, 41(5), 28–51.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daskalovski, Z., & Cekov, A. (2013). Analysis of internal party democracy in Macedonia. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung—Macedonia and CRPM. http://www.crpm.org.mk/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/kas_33615-1522-2-30_Eng.pdf

  • Dimeski, J. (2014). Priracnik za parlamentarnite izbori vo Republika Makedonija (2nd ed.). Konrad Adenauer Stiftung—Macedonia and IDSCS. http://www.kas.de/wf/doc/kas_37897-1522-2-30.pdf?140529135320

  • Electoral Code of the Republic of Macedonia. (2011). Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia 53/2011. http://old.sec.mk/star/Predvremeni2011/IZBOREN_ZAKONIK_(Precisten_tekst).pdf

  • Fokus.mk. (2015, October 6). Kompleten material od bombite sto gi objavi opozicijata. http://fokus.mk/kompleten-materijal-od-site-bombi-shto-gi-objavi-opozitsijata/

  • Freedom House. (2015). Nations in transit 2015. https://freedomhouse.org/country/north-macedonia/nations-transit/2015

  • Freedom House. (2016). Nations in transit 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/country/north-macedonia/nations-transit/2016

  • Giordano, C. (2013). The social organization of informality: The rationale underlying personalized relationships and coalitions. In C. Giordano & N. Hayoz (Eds.), Informality in eastern Europe—Structures, political cultures and social practices. Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giordano, C., & Hayoz, N. (Eds.). (2013). Informality in Eastern Europe—Structures, political cultures and social practices. Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gjuzelov, B. (2013). Klientelizmot kako alatka za mobilizacija na glasackiot elektorat. Politicka Misla, 11(41), 99–106.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayoz, N. (2013). Observations on the changing meanings of informality. In C. Giordano & N. Hayoz (Eds.), Informality in Eastern Europe—Structures, political cultures and social practices. Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heimke, G., & Levitsky, S. (2004, December). Informal institutions and comparative politics: A research agenda. Perspectives on Politics, 2(4), 725–740.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hilgers, T. (2008). Causes and consequences of political clientelism: Mexico’s PRD in comparative perspective. Latin American Politics and Society, 50(4), 123–153.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Katz, R. S., & Mair, P. (2003). The ascendancy of the party in public office: Party organizational change in twentieth‐century democracies. In R. Gunther, J. R. Montero & J. Lintz (Eds.), Political parties: Old concepts and new challenges. Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kemp, B. (2013). Political party dialogue: A facilitator’s guide. International IDEA/NIMD/the Oslo Center.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kopecky, P., & Mair, P. (2011). Party patronage in contemporary Europe: Principles and practices (EUI Working Paper RSCAS 41).

    Google Scholar 

  • Krause, E. (1998). Doctors, partitocrazia, and the Italian state. The Milbank Quarterly, 66, 148–166, Supplement 2: The Changing Character of the Medical Profession.

    Google Scholar 

  • LaPalombara, J. (1988). Partitocrazia. The Wilson Quarterly, 12(2), 98–117.

    Google Scholar 

  • Law on Election of MPs in the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. (1998). Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia 24/1998. http://www.slvesnik.com.mk/Issues/EF6EE403BB7A4C52B969183A4F04CA8A.pdf

  • Law on Election of MPs in the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia. (2002). Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia 42/2002. http://www.slvesnik.com.mk/Issues/DADD74CF60D3A94AAB57B77E17AF39C7.pdf

  • Ledeneva, A. V. (1998). Russia’a economy of favours—Blat, networking and informal exchange. Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maiyo, J. (2008). Political parties and intra-party democracy in East Africa: From representative to participatory democracy (Thesis). Leiden University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maravall, J. M. (2003). The political consequences of internal party democracy. CEACS.

    Google Scholar 

  • Markovic, N. (2012). Survey on political culture in Macedonia—National field survey report. Fredrich Ebert Stiftung and IDSCS.

    Google Scholar 

  • Markovic, N., Ilievski, Z., Damjanovski, I., & Bozinovski, V. (2011). The role of the European Union in the democratic consolidation and ethnic conflict management in the Republic of Macedonia. (Regional research promotion programme in the Western Balkans report).

    Google Scholar 

  • Markovikj, N., & Popovikj, M. (2015). Politicki dijalog. Konrad Adenauer Stiftung—Macedonia and IDSCS.

    Google Scholar 

  • McAllister, I. (1991). Party adaptation and factionalism within the Australian party system. American Journal of Political Science, 35(1), 206–227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mungiu-Pippidi, A. (2005). Deconstructing Balkan particularism: The ambiguous social capital of Southeastern Europe. Southeast European and Black Sea Studies, 5(1), 49–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • OSCE. (2014). The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia presidential and early parliamentary elections, 13 and 27 April 2014 (OSCE/ODIHR Election observation mission final report). http://www.osce.org/odihr/elections/fyrom/121306?download=true

  • Persico, N., Pueblita, J. C. R., & Silverman, D. (2011). Factions and political competition. Journal of Political Economy, 119(2), 242–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pop-Eleches, G., & Tucker, J. A. (2011). Communism's shadow: Postcommunist legacies, values and behaviour. Comparative Politics, 43(4), 379–399.

    Google Scholar 

  • Powell, J. D. (1970). Peasant society and clientelist politics. American Political Science Review, 64, 411–425.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rasch, E. B. (2011). Legilsative debates and democratic deliberation in parliamentary systems—Preliminary draft paper for presentation at the Oslo-Yale international workshop on epistemic democracy in practice. Yale University.

    Google Scholar 

  • Remmer, K. L. (2007). The political economy of patronage: Expenditure patterns in the Argentine provinces, 1983–2003. The Journal of Politics, 69(2), 363–377.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reporters Without Borders. (2016). RSF Index 2016. https://rsf.org/en/index?year=2016, https://rsf.orgen/Macedonia

  • Ron, L. (2012). Intra-party democracy and party responsiveness. West European Politics, 35(6), 1295–1319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ross, R. G. (1954). Democracy, party, and politics. Ethics, 64(2), 100–125.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Scarrow, S. (2005). Political parties and democracy in theoretical and practical perspectives: Implementing intra-party democracy. NDI.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siljanovska, G. (2001). Nacrt-amandmanite na Ustavot na Republika Makedonija – prilog kon javnata rasprava. UKIM – Praven fakultet.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siljanovska, G. (2005). Organizational structures and internal party democracy in the Republic of Macedonia. In G. Karasimeonov (Ed.), Organizational structures and internal party democracy in South Eastern Europe. Gorex Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sterbling, A. (2013). Aspects of ‘informality’—With particular focus on South-Eastern Europe. In C. Giordano & N. Hayoz (Eds.), Informality in eastern Europe—Structures, political cultures and social practices. Peter Lang.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thiesmeyer, L. (2003). Introduction: Silencing in discourse. In T. Lynn (Ed.), Discourse and silencing: Representation and the language of displacement. John Benjamins.

    Google Scholar 

  • United Nations Development Programme. (2009). Why dialogue matters for conflict prevention and peacebuilding. http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/crisis%20prevention/dialogue_conflict.pdf

  • Wantchekon, L. (2003). Clientelism and voting behavior: Evidence from a field experiment in Benin. World Politics, 55(3), 399–422.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Weitz-Shapiro, R. (2012). What wins votes: Why some politicians opt out of clientelism. American Journal of Political Science, 56(3), 568–583.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zuckerman, A. (1975). Political clienteles in power: Party factions and cabinet coalitions in Italy. Sage Professional Papers in Comparative Politics. Sage.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Annex

Annex

See Tables 7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4, 7.5, and 7.6.

Table 7.1 Index of party democracy in Macedonia—General level of democracy within the party
Table 7.2 Index of party democracy—Relations between the central party organs and the local branches
Table 7.3 Short history of political crises in the Republic of Macedonia 1994–2014
Table 7.4 Boycotts of the Macedonian Parliament 1994–2015
Table 7.5 Scores of the Republic of Macedonia in four categories according to Freedom House
Table 7.6 Ranking of Macedonia on the World Press Freedom Index, 2003–2016

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Markovikj, N. (2023). Political Parties and the Trials of Democracy. In: Hudson, R., Dodovski, I. (eds) Macedonia’s Long Transition. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-20773-0_6

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics