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Are There Varieties of Capitalism in Developing Countries? Public Finance and Social Transfers in Türkiye and Poland

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The Political Economy of Emerging Markets and Alternative Development Paths

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Abstract

Varieties of national capitalism research in comparative political economy predominantly depends on developed capitalist economies’ typologies in which capitalist mode of production complies with social reproduction in a fashion that translates into high national incomes with varieties of welfare regimes. Whilst these typologies may not be fully applicable as the institutional structures and social reproduction mechanism in these countries are relatively lagging behind in adapting to the capitalist mode of production, the common features used in creating these typologies can be helpful to understand the trajectories of capitalist development. Within this context, the chapter discusses varieties of capitalism in developing countries through welfare practices with a concentration on social transfer expenditures. Using the conceptual tools provided by the varieties of welfare capitalism approach, and Sanyal’s poverty governmentality concept derived from Foucoult’s theory, social protection structures and expenditures in Türkiye and Poland are analysed and compared.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    These typologies are originated from Weber’s concept of ideal type. “The quantitative approach to unique cultural constellations and the conception of ideal types are intimately linked with the comparative method. This method implies that two constellations are comparable in terms of some feature common to them both….. As general concepts, ideal types are tools with which Weber prepares the descriptive materials of world history for comparative analysis. These types vary in scope and in the level of their abstraction” (Gerth ve Mills, 1946, 60).

  2. 2.

    Eurostat, 2022.

  3. 3.

    Free health service provided for low-income groups without any income determination yet.

  4. 4.

    While Eurostat data shows total health expenditures, here we are referring to health transfers made by the state to the lowest income group namely green card.

  5. 5.

    It amalgamated with the Ministry of Labor and Social Security in 2018 to become the Ministry of Family, Labor, and Social Services. In 2021, following the formation of the Ministry of Labor and Social Security, the ministry's name was changed to “Ministry of Family and Social Services”.

  6. 6.

    https://www.gov.pl/web/family/family-500.

  7. 7.

    https://www.gov.pl/web/family/family-care-capital-parents-will-have-a-choice.

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Correspondence to Aslı Ceren Saral .

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Saral, A.C., Ağdemir, Z., Abukan, D. (2023). Are There Varieties of Capitalism in Developing Countries? Public Finance and Social Transfers in Türkiye and Poland. In: Ricz, J., Gerőcs, T. (eds) The Political Economy of Emerging Markets and Alternative Development Paths. International Political Economy Series. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-20702-0_11

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