Skip to main content

Instant or Distant: A Temporal Network Tale of Two Interaction Platforms and Their Influence on Collaboration

  • 1157 Accesses

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS,volume 13450)


This study compared two iterations of the same course where students had the same assignments. In the first iteration, the students had to use the typical discussion forums offered by the popular Moodle learning management system. In the second iteration, students had to use Discord, the popular gaming chat application. Students’ interactions were retrieved from both platforms and cleaned. Two social networks were constructed using the same methods to evaluate the differences in patterns of interaction between the two platforms, the group interactivity, the reciprocity, and the quality of interactions. The aim is to study how far an instant messenger facilitates or otherwise constrains collaboration. We use temporal network methods to further understand the pace, rhythm, and temporality of interactions.


  • Social network analysis
  • Temporal network analysis
  • CSCL
  • Learning analytics

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-16290-9_55
  • Chapter length: 7 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-031-16290-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   99.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.


  1. Siemens, G.: Learning analytics: the emergence of a discipline. Am. Behav. Sci. 57, 1380–1400 (2013)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Wong, B.T.M.: Learning analytics in higher education: an analysis of case studies. Asian Assoc. Open Univ. J. 12, 21–40 (2017)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Malmberg, J., Saqr, M., Järvenoja, H., Järvelä, S.: How the monitoring events of individual students are associated with phases of regulation. J. Learn. Anal. 9, 77–92 (2022)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Törmänen, T., Järvenoja, H., Saqr, M., Malmberg, J.: A person-centered approach to study students’ socio-emotional interaction profiles and regulation of collaborative learning. Front. Educ. (2022)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Saqr, M., Peeters, W.: Temporal networks in collaborative learning: a case study. Br. J. Educ. Technol. (2022).

  6. Vu, D., Pattison, P., Robins, G.: Relational event models for social learning in MOOCs. Soc. Netw. 43, 121–135 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Saqr, M., Nouri, J.: High resolution temporal network analysis to understand and improve collaborative learning. In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, pp. 314–319. Association for Computing Machinery, New York (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Saqr, M., Poquet, O., Lopez-Pernas, S.: Networks in education: a travelogue through five decades. IEEE Access 10, 32361–32380 (2022)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Saqr, M., López-Pernas, S.: The curious case of centrality measures: a large-scale empirical investigation. J. Learn. Anal. 9, 13–31 (2022)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Holme, P., Saramäki, J.: Temporal networks as a modeling framework. In: Holme, P., Saramäki, J. (eds.) Temporal Networks, pp. 1–14. Springer, Heidelberg (2013).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Conde, M.Á., Rodríguez-Sedano, F.J., Hernández-García, Á., Gutiérrez-Fernández, A., Guerrero-Higueras, Á.M.: Your teammate just sent you a new message! The effects of using telegram on individual acquisition of teamwork competence. Int. J. Interact. Multimedia 6, 225 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Lents, N.H., Cifuentes, O.E.: Increasing student-teacher interactions at an urban commuter campus through instant messaging and online office hours (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Fox, A.B., Rosen, J., Crawford, M.: Distractions, distractions: does instant messaging affect college students’ performance on a concurrent reading comprehension task? Cyberpsychol. Behav. 12, 51–53 (2009)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references


This study is partially funded by the Erasmus+ program of the European Union within the project ENVISION_2027 (grant number 2020-1-FI01-KA226-HE-092653), and by the Academy of Finland (grant number 350560).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammed Saqr .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Saqr, M., López-Pernas, S. (2022). Instant or Distant: A Temporal Network Tale of Two Interaction Platforms and Their Influence on Collaboration. In: Hilliger, I., Muñoz-Merino, P.J., De Laet, T., Ortega-Arranz, A., Farrell, T. (eds) Educating for a New Future: Making Sense of Technology-Enhanced Learning Adoption. EC-TEL 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 13450. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-16289-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-16290-9

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)