Skip to main content

Short-Delay Multipath Errors in NavIC Signals for Stationary Receivers

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Cyber Warfare, Security and Space Research (SpacSec 2021)

Part of the book series: Communications in Computer and Information Science ((CCIS,volume 1599))

Included in the following conference series:

  • 370 Accesses


This paper presents, in part, a tutorial overview of the code phase error and carrier phase error caused by a single reflected path and an iterative algorithm to determine the root of the well-known multipath-affected discriminator function. The algorithm is then applied to determine the code error and carrier phase error in GPS signals in a single reflected path environment, and is validated by comparing the results with the known results. The algorithm is further used to determine and illustrate single-path errors in NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation) signals for the first time in the literature. The NavIC errors differ significantly from the GPS errors because of the limited and slow traverses of the elevation and azimuth angles of the three geostationary and four geosynchronous NavIC satellites signals to a stationary receiver on the ground. NavIC multipath errors of a real receiver on the ground for both L5 and S1 frequencies are presented. The multipath errors of the two frequencies differ greatly because the S1 wavelength (0.12 m) is nearly half of the L5 wavelength (0.25 m) and, therefore, the S1 multipath error frequencies are nearly twice of the L5 multipath error frequencies. The real multipath errors differ from the ideal single-path ground reflection errors because, in reality, the diffractors may be multiple comprising both horizontal and vertical, and the reflections vary with time due to both elevation and azimuth of the satellite signals, causing substantial disorder in errors.

This research was supported by Space Applications Center, Indian Space Research Organization as a part of NGP-17 project. Manuscript presented at the 72nd International Astronautical Congress, Dubai, 2021-10-28. Copyright by IAF.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 69.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 89.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Blewitt, G.: Basics of GPS technique: observation equations. Geodetic Appl. GPS (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Misra, P., Enge, P.: Global Positioning System: Signals, Measurements and Performance (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Doherty, P.H., Bishop, G.J., Klobuchar, J.A.: Multipath effects on the determination of absolute ionospheric time delay from GPS. Radio Science

    Google Scholar 

  4. Braasch, M.S., van Graas, F.: Mitigation of Multipath in DGPS Ground Reference Stations (1992)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Brodin, G.: GNSS Code and Carrier Tracking in the Presence of Multipath (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  6. van Nee, R.D.J.: GPS Multipath and Satellite Interference (1992)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Breivik, K., Enge, P., Forssell, B., Kee, C., Walter, T.: Detection and Estimation of Multipath Error in GPS Pseudorange Measurements Using Signal-to-Noise Ratio in a Stationary Single-frequency Receiver (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Parkinson, B.W., Spilker, J.J., Jr. (eds.): Global Positioning System: Theory and Applications, vol. 1, chapter 14. Multipath Effects, pp. 547–568

    Google Scholar 

  9. Althaf, A., Hablani, H.: NavIC signals multipath analysis, estimation and mitigation for high-accuracy positioning. ION ITM GNSS 2878–2895 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Hofmann-Wellenhof, B., Lichtenegger, H., Wasle, E.: GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite Systems. Springer, Heidelberg (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  11. IRNSS-GPS-GLONASS-GAGAN Receiver Brochure, Accord Software & Systems Private Ltd., Rev. 1.1, January 2016

    Google Scholar 

  12. van Nee, R.D.J.: Multipath effects on GPS code phase measurements. ION GPS 915–924 (1991)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Smith, C.A., Graves, K.W.: Sensitivity of GPS acquisition to initial data uncertainties. Navigation: J. ION 31, 220–232 (1984)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Althaf, A., Hablani, H.: Assessment of errors in NavIC observables for stationary receivers. Navigation: J. ION 347–364 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  15. Braasch, M.S.: Isolation of GPS multipath and receiver tracking errors. ION NTM 511–521 (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bilich, A., Larson, K.M., Axelrad, P.: Modeling GPS phase multipath with SNR: case study from the Salar de Uyuni, Boliva. J. Geophys. Res. 113, B04401 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

Download references


We are grateful to Space Application Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation for supporting this study as part of the NGP-17 project.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hari Hablani .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Tiwari, K., Althaf, A., Hablani, H. (2022). Short-Delay Multipath Errors in NavIC Signals for Stationary Receivers. In: Joshi, S., Bairwa, A.K., Nandal, A., Radenkovic, M., Avsar, C. (eds) Cyber Warfare, Security and Space Research. SpacSec 2021. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1599. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-15783-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-15784-4

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics