Settlement was disastrous to Indigenous people, who lost about 95% of their population between 1700 and 1900. They also sustained cultural attacks, especially the now-infamous boarding schools that removed children from parents and all too often let them die. The resource base suffered depletion. The famous fisheries have been hard hit, with many populations extirpated and others reduced to a few fish. Species whose populations had been maintained for millennia in spite of heavy and continual pressure were reduced to near-extinction. Today, Indigenous people are increasing and reclaiming their culture, and some reassertion of traditional management is occurring, not least because it succeeds where settler management has failed.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
Alfred, A. (2004). Paddling to where I stand: Agnes Alfred, Qwiqwasutinuxw noblewoman. Trans. D. Sewid-smith, ed. Martine Reid. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Anderson, E. N. (1992). A healing place: Ethnographic notes on a treatment center. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 9(3/4), 1–21.
Anderson, E. N. (1996). Ecologies of the heart. Oxford University Press.
Anderson, E. N. (2014). Caring for place. Left Coast Press.
Arnold, D. F. (2008). The Fisherman’s frontier: People and Salmon in Southeast Alaska. University of Washington Press.
Atleo, E. R. (2004). Tsawalk: A Nuu-chah-nulth worldview. University of British Columbia Press.
Atleo, E. R. (2011). Principles of Tsawalk: An indigenous approach to global crisis. University of British Columbia Press.
Ballard, A. C. (1929). Mythology of southern Puget Sound. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology, 3, 31–250.
Beckham, S. D. (1996). Requiem for a people. (Orig. publ. 1971). Oregon State University Press.
Boyd, R. T. (1999). The coming of the spirit of pestilence: Introduced infectious diseases and population decline among northwest coast Indians, 1774-1874. University of Washington Press.
Boyd, R. T. (2013a). Lower Chinookan disease and demography. In R. T. Boyd, K. M. Ames, & T. A. Johnson (Eds.), Chinookan peoples of the lower Columbia (pp. 229–249). University of Washington Press.
Boyd, R. T. (2013b). Lower Columbia Chinookan ceremonialism. In R. T. Boyd, K. M. Ames, & T. A. Johnson (Eds.), Chinookan peoples of the lower Columbia (pp. 181–198). University of Washington Press.
Boyd, R., & Gregory, C. D. (2007). Disease and demography in the plateau. Journal of Northwest Anthropology, 41, 37–70.
Boyd, R. T., Ames, K. M., & Johnson, T. A. (Eds.). (2013). Chinookan peoples of the lower Columbia. University of Washington Press.
Breslow, S. J. (2011). Salmon habitat restoration, farmland preservation, and environmental drama in the Skagit River valley. Ph. D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Washington.
Brock, P. (2011). The many voyages of Arthur Wellington Clah. University of British Columbia Press.
Cameron, C. M., Kelton, P., & Swedlund, A. C. (Eds.). (2015). Beyond germs: Native depopulation in North America. University of Arizona Press.
Carolan, M. (2004). Ontological politics: Mapping a complex environmental problem. Environmental Values, 13, 497–522.
Carstens, P. (1991). The Queen’s people: A study of hegemony, coercion, and accommodation among the Okanagan of Canada. University of Toronto Press.
Chabria, A. (2021, June 25). Racism surfaces in water war. Los Angeles Times, A1, A12.
Coté, C. (2010). Spirits of our whaling ancestors: Revitalizing Makah and Nuu-chah-nulth traditions. University of Washington Press.
Cozzens, P. (2002). Eyewitnesses to the Indian wars, 1865-1890. Vol. 2: The wars for the Pacific Northwest. Stackpole Books.
Crosby, A. W. (1972). The Columbian exchange: Biological and cultural consequences of 1492. Greenwood Press.
Dauenhauer, N. M., & Dauenhauer, R. (1987). Haa Shuká, our ancestors: Tlingit Oral narratives. University of Washington.
Dauenhauer, N. M., & Dauenhauer, R. (1990). Haa Tuwunáagu Yís, for healing our Spirit: Tlingit oratory. University of Washington.
Davis, T. (2000). Sustaining the forest, the people, and the spirit. SUNY Press.
Dewey, M. (2007). Language retention practices and modern technology. Indigenous Nations Studies Program, University of Kansas.
Diamond, J. (1997). Guns, germs and steel. W. W. Norton.
Dombrowski, K. (2002). The praxis of indigenism and Alaska native timber politics. American Anthropologist, 104, 1062–1073.
Doremus, H., & Tarlock, A. D. (2008). Water war in the Klamath Basin: Macho law, combat biology, and dirty politics. Island Press.
Dupris, J., Hill, K., & Rodgers, W. (2006). The Si’lailo way: Indians, Salmon and Dams on the Columbia River. Carolina Academic Press.
Fisher, A. H. (2010). Shadow tribe: The making of Columbia River Indian identity. University of Washington Press.
Fiske, J., & Patrick, B. (2000). Cis Dideen Kat: When the plumes rise. University of British Columbia Press.
Ford, C. S. (1941). Smoke from their fires: The life of a Kwakiutl chief. Yale University Press.
George, E. (2003). Living on the edge: Nuu-Chah-Nulth history from an Ahousaht Chief’s perspective. Sono Nis Press.
Gilbert, B. (1989). God gave us this country: Tekamthi and the first American civil war. Atheneum Press.
Gill, I. (2009). All that we say is ours: Guujaaw and the reawakening of the Haida nation. Douglas & McIntyre.
Glavin, T. (1998). A death feast in Dimlahamid. New Star Books.
Goetze, T. (2006). Empowered co-management: Towards power-sharing and indigenous rights in Clayoquot sound, BC. Anthropologica, 47(2), 247–266.
Gottfried, R. (1983). The black death: Natural and human disaster in medieval Europe. Robert Hale.
Grijalva, J. M. (2008). Closing the circle: Environmental justice in Indian country. Carolina Academic Press.
Harmon, A. (1998). Indians in the making: Ethnic relations and Indian identities around Puget Sound. University of California Press.
Harris, D. (2008). Landing native fisheries: Indian reserves and fishing rights in British Columbia, 1849-1925. University of British Columbia Press.
Hawker, R. W. (2003). Tales of ghosts: First nations art in British Columbia, 1922-1961. University of British Columbia Press.
Hefferman, T. (2012). Where the Salmon run: Life and legacy of Billy Frank Jr. University of Washington Press.
Helm, J. (2000). The people of Denendeh: ethnohistory of the Indians of Canada’s northwest territories. University of Iowa Press.
Hunn, E., & Selam, J. (1990). Nch’i-Wana, the big river. University of Washington Press.
Karson, J. (Ed.). (2006). Wiyáxyxt/as days go by/wiyáakaaɂawn: Our history, our land, and our people: The Cayuse, Umatilla, and Walla Walla. Tamástslikt Culturtal Institute and Oregon Historical Society Press.
Kerttula, A. M. (2000). Antler on the sea: Yup’ik and Chukchi of the Russian Far East. Cornell University Press.
King, T. (1994). Green grass, running water. Bantam.
Lutz, J. S. (2008). Makúk: A new history of Aboriginal-White relations. University of British Columbia Press.
Madley, B. (2016). An American genocide: The United States and the California Indian catastrophe, 1846–1873. Yale University Press.
Mann, C. C. (2005). 1491: New revelations of America before Columbus. Knopf.
Marshall, J. (1995). On behalf of the wolf and the first peoples. University of New Mexico Press.
Martin, C. (1978). Keepers of the game. University of California Press.
Meek, B. (2010). We are our language: An ethnography of language revitalization in a northern Athabaskan community. University of Arizona Press.
Mishler, C., & Simeone, W. E. (2004). Han: People of the river. University of Alaska Press.
Mosby, I., & Galloway, T. (2017a). ‘The abiding condition was hunger:’ Assessing the long-term biological and health effects of malnutrition and hunger in Canada’s residential schools. British Journal of Canadian Studies, Special Issue on Health and Residential Schools, 30(2), 147–162.
Mosby, I., & Galloway, T. (2017b). ’Hunger was never absent’: How residential school diets shaped current patterns of diabetes among indigenous peoples in Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 189(32), E1042–E1045.
Nadasdy, P. (2003). Hunters and bureaucrats. University of British Columbia Press.
Natcher, D. C., Davis, S., & Hickey, C. G. (2005). Co-management: Managing relationships, not resources. Human Organization, 64, 240–250.
Niezen, R. (2017). Truth and indignation: Canada’s truth and reconciliation on Indian residential schools. University of Toronto Press.
Peck, A. M. (2021). ‘We Didn’t go anywhere’: Restoring Jamestown S’Klallam presence, combating settler colonial amnesia, and engaging with non-native in Western Washington. Journal of Northwest Anthropology, 55, 105–134.
Persky, S. (1998). Delgamuukw: The supreme court of Canada decision on aboriginal title. David Suzuki Foundation, Greystone Books, Douglas and McIntyre.
Petrie, M. (2020, November–December). Riches to rags (pp. 44–46). Ducks Unlimited.
Pettitt, G. (1950). The Quileute of La Push, 1775-1945 (Vol. 14, p. 1). University of California, Anthropological Papers.
Pierotti, R. (2004). Animal disease as an environmental factor. In S. Krech & C. Merchant (Eds.), Encyclopedia of world environmental history. Berkshire Publishing.
Pierotti, R. (2006). The role of animal disease in history. In Encyclopedia of world history. Berkshire.
Pierotti, R. (2010). Sustainability of natural populations: Lessons from indigenous knowledge. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15, 274–287.
Pierotti, R. (2011). Indigenous knowledge, ecology, and evolutionary biology. Routledge.
Pierotti, R., & Wildcat, D. R. (1999). Traditional knowledge, culturally-based world-views and Western science. In D. Posey (Ed.), Cultural and spiritual values of biodiversity (pp. 192–199). United Nations Environment Programme.
Pierotti, R., & Wildcat, D. (2000). Traditional ecological knowledge: The third alternative. Ecological Applications, 10, 1333–1340.
Pinkerton, E. (Ed.). (1989). cooperative management of local fisheries: New directions for improved management and community development. University of British Columbia.
Pinkerton, E., & Weinstein, M. (1995). Fisheries that work: Sustainability through community-based management. David Suzuki Foundation.
Quinn, A. (1997). Hell with the fire out: A history of the Modoc war. Faber & Faber.
Reid, J. L. (2015). The sea is my country: The maritime world of the Makah. Yale University Press.
Reyes, L. L. (2002). White grizzly Bear’s legacy: Learning to be Indian. University of Washington Press.
Reyes, L. L. (2006). Bernie Whitebear: An urban Indian’s quest for justice. University of Arizona Press.
Reyes, L. L. (2016). The last fish war: Survival on the rivers. Chin Music Press.
Ridington, R. (1988). Trail to heaven: Knowledge and narrative in a northern native community. University of Iowa Press.
Rytkheu, Y. (2019). When the whales leave. Trans. by I. Y. Chavasse. Milkweed Editions.
Sapir, E. (1922). Sayach’apis, a Nootka Trader. In E. C. Parsons (Ed.), American Indian life (pp. 297–323). University of Nebraska Press.
Sapir, E., & Swadesh, M. (1955). Native accounts of Nootka ethnography (p. 1). Publications of the Indiana University Center for Anthropology.
Schreiber, D. (2002). ’Our food sits on the table’: Wealth, resistance and salmon farming in two first nations communities. American Indian Quarterly, 26, 360–377.
Schreiber, D. (2004). The social construction of Salmon farming in British Columbia. PhD Dissertation, University of British Columbia.
Schreiber, D. (2008). ‘A Liberal and paternal Spirit’: Indian agents and native fisheries in Canada. Ethnohistory, 55, 87–118.
Schreiber, D., & Newell, D. (2006). Negotiating TEK in BC Salmon farming: Learning from each other or managing tradition and eliminating contention? BC Studies, 150, 79–102.
Sercombe, L. (2021). History of Lushootseed language instruction. Journal of Northwest Anthropology, 55, 23–41.
Service. (2003). ‘Combat biology’ on the Klamath. Science, 300, 36–39.
Sewid, J. (1969). Guests never leave hungry: The autobiography of James Sewid, a Kwakiutl Indian. Yale University Press.
Stern, T. (1966). The Klamath tribe: A people and their reservation. University of Washington Press.
Stiles, D. B. (1997). Four successful indigenous language programs (p. 16). In Teaching indigenous languages. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED415079.pdf
Sullivan, R. (2000). A whale hunt: Two years on the Olympic peninsula with the Makah and their canoe. Scribners.
Switzler, V. (2012). That is all I have to say: An argument for immersion as a language revitalization method in the warm springs community. University of Kansas.
Takeda, L. (2015). Islands’ spirit rising: Reclaiming the forests of Haida Gwaii. University of British Columbia Press.
Tatz, C., & Higgins, W. (2016). The magnitude of genocide. Praeger, an imprint of ABC-CLIO.
Tonkovich, N. (2012). The allotment plot. University of Nebraska Press.
Tonkovich, N. (2016). Dividing the reservation: Alice C. Fletcher’s Nez Perce allotment diaries and letters (pp. 1889–1892). Washington State University Press.
Trafzer, C. E. (1997). Death stalks the Yakama. Michigan State University Press.
Trosper, R. L. (2007). Indigenous influence on Forest management on the Menominee Indian reservation. Forest Ecology and Management, 249, 134–139.
Trosper, R. L. (2009). Resilience, reciprocity, and ecological economics: Northwest coast sustainability. Routledge.
Vaillant, J. (2005). Golden spruce: A true story of myth, madness, and greed. W. W. Norton.
Vizenor, G. (1994). Manifest manners: Postindian masters of survivance. Wesleyan University Press.
White Hat, A. (2012). Zuya (Life’s journey): Oral teachings from rosebud. University of Utah Press.
Wilkinson, C. (2010). The people are dancing again: The history of the Siletz tribe of Western Oregon. University of Washington Press.
Williams, T. (2003, March). Salmon stakes. Audubon, pp. 42–52.
Youst, L., & Seaburg, W. (2002). Coquelle Thompson, Athabaskan witness. University of Oklahoma Press.
© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Anderson, E.N., Pierotti, R. (2022). White Settler Contact and Its Consequences. In: Respect and Responsibility in Pacific Coast Indigenous Nations. Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation, vol 13. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-15586-4_7
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-031-15585-7
Online ISBN: 978-3-031-15586-4