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Exercise and Nutritional Guidelines for Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in the Obese Female

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The Active Female

Abstract

Overweight  [body mass index (BMI) of 25.9–29.9 kilograms per meter squared (kg/m2)] and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) are a growing epidemic in the United States with two-thirds of the population falling into either category. Obesity has been linked to numerous health-related issues including type II diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, strokes, and certain types of cancer. Research has found that the best treatment for obesity is weight loss. The preferred approach for losing and maintaining weight loss is through the combination of dieting and exercising together. Beginning a weight loss treatment can be difficult as physical, mental, and emotional factors can deter an individual’s progress. However, a correct understanding of the body’s metabolism and the selection of an appropriate diet and exercise program may assist patients with weight loss. This study aims to analyze the assortments of diets and exercises available to public knowledge and assess their effectiveness during an intervention period. The current literature indicates that diets such as Atkins, Keto, Paleo, Mediterranean, and Intermittent Fasting can help patients to lose weight. Yet, each of these diets comes with inherent limitations, although the Mediterranean diet appears to have relatively few limitations/contraindications in comparison to the other diets previously mentioned. Of the many exercise modalities, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training illustrated the most significant ability to establish weight loss. HIIT produces the largest difference in body fat rate (BF%) and body fat mass (FM) while resistance training shows the highest adherence to exercise rate and builds the most muscle mass, linked to an increase in basal metabolic rate (BMR). The future of weight loss may include greater integration and optimization of diet and exercise based upon the body’s circadian rhythm. However, there is a need for additional studies to explore this theory.

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Chapter Review Questions

Chapter Review Questions

  1. 1.

    Which of the following properties is true of both the Atkins and the Keto Diet?

    1. (a)

      High protein

    2. (b)

      High fat

    3. (c)

      Low carb

    4. (d)

      Dietary phases

  2. 2.

    Which of the following is shown by research to be the most effective way to lose weight?

    1. (a)

      Diet only

    2. (b)

      Exercise only

    3. (c)

      Diet and exercise

    4. (d)

      Diet, exercise, and behavioral therapy

  3. 3.

    You are meeting with an obese patient who is considering various diets to help her lose weight. She would like to begin the Atkins Diet. Her past medical history indicates eczema, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Based on these findings, you recommend that she

    1. (a)

      Begins the Atkins diet because it will help her to lose weight

    2. (b)

      Starts the Atkins diet to help her treat her eczema and hypertension

    3. (c)

      Avoids the Atkins diet because it may accelerate her kidney dysfunction

    4. (d)

      Not do the Atkins diet as it may induce ketosis

  4. 4.

    Which of the following is NOT a contraindication for Intermittent Fasting

    1. (a)

      Infertility

    2. (b)

      Nausea

    3. (c)

      Amenorrhea

    4. (d)

      Bulimia nervosa

  5. 5.

    A 54-year-old female comes to your clinic seeking dietary advice. She has a blood pressure (BP) of 131/89, heart rate (HR) of 78, a respiratory rate (RR) of 16, and a BMI of 36 kg/m2. She has been diagnosed on previous visits with hypercholesterolemia and type II diabetes. There is also a history of chronic heart disease in her family. Based on this information which diet would you recommend for her?

    1. (a)

      Mediterranean

    2. (b)

      Intermittent fasting

    3. (c)

      Paleo

    4. (d)

      Atkins

  6. 6.

    A 44-year-old obese woman, who is 5 ft 1in (154.9 cm), weighs 182 lb (82.6 kg), and lives a sedentary lifestyle comes into the clinic complaining about her weight. Her sister’s wedding is approaching in May, and she wants to lose 20 lbs by then. We set a weight loss goal of 1 lb per week. What should her total caloric intake be per day?

    1. (a)

      1705 kcal/day

    2. (b)

      1205 kcal/day

    3. (c)

      921 kcal/day

    4. (d)

      500 kcal/day

  7. 7.

    Which of the following is proven to increase basal metabolic rate (BMR)?

    1. (a)

      Fat mass

    2. (b)

      Fat-free mass

    3. (c)

      Aerobic training

    4. (d)

      Flexibility training

  8. 8.

    A 27-year-old fit woman complaining about severe back pain is seeking medical attention after straining her back during a HIIT session. She has a blood pressure (BP) of 124/78, heart rate (HR) of 105, a respiratory rate (RR) of 20, and a BMI of 20 kg/m2. At which of the following levels of Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) did her injury most likely occur at?

    1. (a)

      Level 1

    2. (b)

      Level 2

    3. (c)

      Level 3

    4. (d)

      Level 4

    5. (e)

      Level 5

  9. 9.

    Which of the following forms of exercise will most likely achieve a VO2max intensity of 90%?

    1. (a)

      Jogging

    2. (b)

      Weight-lifting

    3. (c)

      High-intensity-interval training

    4. (d)

      Swimming

    5. (e)

      Speed walking

  10. 10.

    A 33-year-old obese woman began to feel a burning sensation in her arms during a workout session requiring intense upper body movement. She has a blood pressure (BP) of 138/88, heart rate (HR) of 98, a respiratory rate (RR) of 17, and a BMI of 32 kg/m2. Which of the following energy systems in the body can the burning sensation be attributed to?

    1. (a)

      ATP storage

    2. (b)

      Creatine storage

    3. (c)

      Aerobic glycolysis

    4. (d)

      Anaerobic glycolysis

Answers

  1. 1.

    c

  2. 2.

    d

  3. 3.

    c

  4. 4.

    b

  5. 5.

    a

  6. 6.

    b

  7. 7.

    b

  8. 8.

    e

  9. 9.

    c

  10. 10.

    d

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Perry, C., Pourghaed, M.“., Robert-McComb, J.J. (2023). Exercise and Nutritional Guidelines for Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance in the Obese Female. In: Robert-McComb, J.J., Zumwalt, M., Fernandez-del-Valle, M. (eds) The Active Female. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-15485-0_32

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