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Radar Sensing of Merapi Volcano

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Merapi Volcano

Part of the book series: Active Volcanoes of the World ((AVOLCAN))

Abstract

Monitoring and assessing eruption hazard at Merapi volcano are challenging due to steep slopes, the harsh environment at the summit, and hazardous access during both volcanic crises and quiescent intervals. While passive remote sensing techniques often fail due to cloud coverage, active sensing techniques are increasingly used and bridge fields from mapping to geophysical studies. In particular, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and interferometric products are highly valuable at Merapi and similar volcanoes elsewhere, allowing views of the summit, crater, and dome, even when these are covered by dense rain or ash clouds. SAR and interferometric SAR (InSAR) permit assessment of eruption precursors, quantifying rapid geomorphological changes that occur during dome growth and fracturing, such as those in 2010, 2013–14, and 2018. Radar sensing also allows precisely mapping of volcanic deposits, lahars and damage, monitoring subtle ground displacements, and generating high-resolution digital elevation models. This chapter reviews the benefits of radar investigations conducted at Merapi volcano and discusses future directions.

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Acknowledgements

This work summarises the benefits of satellite synthetic aperture radar data that are provided by various space agencies, namely, the German Aerospace Centre DLR, the Canadian Space Agency, the European Space Center (ESA), and NASA's Space Radar Laboratory. In particular, the DLR team supported the collection of a large set of high-resolution spotmode TerraSAR-X data acquired at Merapi volcano for further research. Discussions and collaborations with colleagues at the Department of Research and Development on Technology for Geological Disaster (BPPTKG), Gadjah Mada University (UGM), and research centres in France, Germany, and the USA are appreciated.

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Walter, T.R. (2023). Radar Sensing of Merapi Volcano. In: Gertisser, R., Troll, V.R., Walter, T.R., Nandaka, I.G.M.A., Ratdomopurbo, A. (eds) Merapi Volcano. Active Volcanoes of the World. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-15040-1_14

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