Skip to main content

Automating Pattern Selection for Assurance Case Development for Cyber-Physical Systems

  • 372 Accesses

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS,volume 13414)

Abstract

Assurance Cases are increasingly being required for regulatory acceptance of Cyber-Physical Systems. However, the ever-increasing complexity of these systems has made the assurance cases development complex, labor-intensive and time-consuming. Assurance case fragments called patterns are used to handle the complexity. The state-of-the-art approach has been to manually select generic patterns from online catalogs, instantiate them with system-specific information, and assemble them into an assurance case. While there has been some work in automating the instantiation and assembly, a less researched area is the automation of the pattern selection process, which takes a considerable amount of the assurance case development time. To close this automation gap, we have developed an automated pattern selection workflow that handles the selection problem as a coverage problem, intending to find the smallest set of patterns that can cover the available system artifacts. For this, we utilize the ontology graphs of the system artifacts and the patterns and perform graph analytics. The selected patterns are fed into an external instantiation function to develop an assurance case. Then, they are evaluated for coverage using two coverage metrics. An illustrative autonomous vehicle example is provided, demonstrating the utility of the proposed workflow in developing an assurance case with reduced efforts and time compared to the manual development alternative.

Keywords

  • Cyber physical systems
  • Assurance case
  • Patterns
  • GSN
  • Optimization
  • Ontology
  • Graph isomorphism
  • Coverage metrics

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-14835-4_6
  • Chapter length: 15 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-031-14835-4
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   79.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.

Notes

  1. 1.

    In the rest of this paper, we will refer to “AC patterns" as “patterns".

  2. 2.

    Captures the fine-grained relationships between different system artifacts.

  3. 3.

    For the CARLA AV setup, visit https://github.com/scope-lab-vu/AV-Assurance.

  4. 4.

    Tool is being built as part of the DARPA ARCOS program. Check our GitHub for release information.

  5. 5.

    For a bird’s eye view of the “revision1" assurance case and the report, visit https://github.com/scope-lab-vu/AV-Assurance.

References

  1. Bishop, P., Bloomfield, R.: A methodology for safety case development. In: Safety and Reliability, vol. 20, pp. 34–42. Taylor & Francis (2000)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Chindamaikul, K., Toshinori, T., Port, D., Hajimu, I.: Automatic approach to prepare information for constructing an assurance case. In: International Conference of Product Focused Software Development and Process Improvement (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Del Fabro, M.D., et al.: Applying generic model management to data mapping. In: BDA (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Denney, E., Pai, G.: A formal basis for safety case patterns. In: Bitsch, F., Guiochet, J., Kaâniche, M. (eds.) SAFECOMP 2013. LNCS, vol. 8153, pp. 21–32. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-40793-2_3

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Denney, E., Pai, G.: Automating the assembly of aviation safety cases. IEEE Trans. Reliab. 63(4), 830–849 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Denney, E., Pai, G., Pohl, J.: AdvoCATE: an assurance case automation toolset. In: Ortmeier, F., Daniel, P. (eds.) SAFECOMP 2012. LNCS, vol. 7613, pp. 8–21. Springer, Heidelberg (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33675-1_2

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Dosovitskiy, A., Ros, G., Codevilla, F., Lopez, A., Koltun, V.: Carla: an open urban driving simulator. arXiv:1711.03938 (2017)

  8. European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation: Safety case development manual, version 2.2 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  9. FDA: Introduction of assurance case method and its application in regulatory science (2019). https://www.fda.gov/media/125182/download

  10. Foster, S., Nemouchi, Y., O’Halloran, C., Stephenson, K., Tudor, N.: Formal model-based assurance cases in Isabelle/SACM (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gacek, A., Backes, J., Cofer, D., Slind, K., Whalen, M.: Resolute: an assurance case language for architecture models. ACM SIGAda Ada Lett. 34(3), 19–28 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Hartsell, C., Mahadevan, N., Dubey, A., Karsai, G.: Automated method for assurance case construction from system design models. In: 2021 5th International Conference on System Reliability and Safety (ICSRS), pp. 230–239 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Hawkins, R., Habli, I., Kolovos, D., Paige, R., Kelly, T.: Weaving an assurance case from design: a model-based approach. In: 2015 IEEE 16th International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering, pp. 110–117. IEEE (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Hawkins, R., Kelly, T., Knight, J., Graydon, P.: A new approach to creating clear safety arguments. In: Dale, C., Anderson, T. (eds) Advances in Systems Safety, pp. 3–23. Springer, London (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-85729-133-2_1

  15. Kelly, T., Weaver, R.: The goal structuring notation-a safety argument notation. In: Proceedings of the Dependable Systems and Networks Workshop on Assurance Cases, p. 6. Citeseer (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  16. Kelly, T.P.: Arguing safety: a systematic approach to managing safety cases. Ph.D. thesis, University of York, York (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Maksimov, M., Fung, N.L.S., Kokaly, S., Chechik, M.: Two decades of assurance case tools: a survey. In: Gallina, B., Skavhaug, A., Schoitsch, E., Bitsch, F. (eds.) SAFECOMP 2018. LNCS, vol. 11094, pp. 49–59. Springer, Cham (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99229-7_6

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Nair, S., de la Vara, J.L., Sabetzadeh, M., Falessi, D.: Evidence management for compliance of critical systems with safety standards: a survey on the state of practice. Inf. Softw. Technol. 60, 1–15 (2015)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Palin, R., Ward, D., Habli, I., Rivett, R.: Iso 26262 safety cases: compliance and assurance (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Ramakrishna, S., Hartsell, C., Dubey, A., Pal, P., Karsai, G.: A methodology for automating assurance case generation. arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.05388 (2020)

  21. Safety-Critical Systems Club: Tiered pattern catalogue (2022). https://scsc.uk/gsn?page=gsn%205Library%20Patterns

  22. Szczygielska, M., Jarzkebowicz, A.: Assurance case patterns on-line catalogue. In: Advances in Dependability Engineering of Complex Systems, pp. 407–417 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  23. de la Vara, J.L., Parra, E., Ruiz, A., Gallina, B.: The amass tool platform: an innovative solution for assurance and certification of cyber-physical systems. In: REFSQ Workshops (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Yamamoto, S., Matsuno, Y.: An evaluation of argument patterns to reduce pitfalls of applying assurance case. In: 2013 1st International Workshop on Assurance Cases for Software-Intensive Systems (ASSURE), pp. 12–17. IEEE (2013)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgement

The authors would like to thank Sarah C. Helble and Dennis M. Volpano for helpful discussions and feedback. This work was supported by the DARPA ARCOS project under Contract FA8750-20-C-0515 (ACCELERATE) and the DARPA Assured Autonomy project. The views, opinions, and/or findings expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of DARPA. We would like to thank the reviewers and editors for taking the time and effort necessary to review the manuscript. We appreciate the valuable feedback, which helped us to improve the quality of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Shreyas Ramakrishna .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Ramakrishna, S., Jin, H., Dubey, A., Ramamurthy, A. (2022). Automating Pattern Selection for Assurance Case Development for Cyber-Physical Systems. In: Trapp, M., Saglietti, F., Spisländer, M., Bitsch, F. (eds) Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security. SAFECOMP 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 13414. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-14835-4_6

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-14835-4_6

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-14834-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-14835-4

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)