Skip to main content

Resilience and Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders of Childhood

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Handbook of Resilience in Children

Abstract

The disruptive, impulse control, and conduct behavior disorders (DICCBDs) of childhood comprise attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), kleptomania, pyromania, intermittent explosive disorder, and conduct disorder (CD), (APA, 2013). These conditions are among the most commonly treated in mental health settings, with epidemiological studies suggesting that between 3% and 16% of all youth meet the diagnostic criteria for at least one, if not two or more, of these conditions. These disorders begin in childhood or adolescence and are more common in males than females. Several factors make it more likely that a person will exhibit a DICCBD, including harsh parenting, physical or sexual abuse, or parents with a history of addiction or problems with law enforcement. This chapter defines each of the DICCBDs, offering insights into the diagnostic process and course as it relates to resilience and stress hardiness. Rather than taking a deficit approach, the authors review variables that insulate or protect those youth with a DICCBD as they transition into adulthood.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 299.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 379.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 379.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1981). Behavioral problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged 4 through 16. Monographs of the Society for Research and Child Development, 46, 1–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Achenbach, T. M., Edelbrock, C. S., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Empirically based assessment of the behavioral/emotional problems of 2- and 3-year-old children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15, 629–650.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Achenbach, T. M., Conners, C. K., Quay, H. C., Verlhulst, F. C., & Howell, C. T. (1989). Replication of empirically derived syndromes as a basis for taxonomy of child/adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17, 299–320.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Alegria, A. A., Radua, J., & Rubia, K. (2016). Meta-analysis of fMRI studies of disruptive behavior disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 173(11), 1119–1130.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Allely, C. (2019). Fire-setting and psychopathology: A brief overview of prevalence, pathways and assessment. University of Salford Manchester.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, J. C., Williams, S., McGee, R., & Silva, P. A. (1987). DSM-III disorders in preadolescent children: Prevalence in a large sample from the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44(1), 69–76.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, T., Bergman, L. R., & Magnusson, D. (1989). Patterns of adjustment problems and alcohol abuse in early childhood: A prospective longitudinal study. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 119–131.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • American Psychiatric Association Division of Research. (2013). Highlights of changes from dsm-iv to dsm-5: Somatic symptom and related disorders. Focus, 11(4), 525–527.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Applegate, B., Lahey, B. B., Hart, E. L., Biederman, J., Hynd, G. W., Barkley, R. A., Ollendick, T., Fricke, P. J., Greenhill, L., McBurnett, K., Newcorn, J. H., Kurdyk, L., Garfinkel, B., Waldman, I., & Schaffer, D. (1997). Validity of the age of onset criterion for ADHD. A report from the DSM-IV field trials. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1211–1221.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Arildskov, T. W., Sonuga-Barke, E. J., Thomsen, P. H., Virring, A., & Ostergaard, S. D. (2021). How much impairment is required for ADHD? No evidence of a discrete threshold. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.

    Google Scholar 

  • Armitage, J. M., Wang, R. H., Davis, O. S., & Haworth, C. M. (2021). A polygenic approach to understanding resilience to peer victimisation. Behavior Genetics.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barkley, R. A. (1997). The nature of self-control. Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (3rd ed.). Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barkley, R. A., & Gordon, M. (2002). Research on comorbidity, adaptive functioning, and cognitive impairments in adults with ADHD: Implications for a clinical practice. In S. Goldstein & S. Teeter Ellison (Eds.), Clinician’s guide to adult ADHD: Assessment and intervention. Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Barkley, R. A., Fischer, M., Edelbrock, C. S., & Smallish, L. (1990). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. an eight-year prospective follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 546–557.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bartek, N., Peck, J. L., Garzon, D., & VanCleve, S. (2021). Addressing the clinical impact of COVID-19 on pediatric mental health. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 337–386.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bauermeister, J. J. (1992). Factor analyses of teacher ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant symptoms in children aged four through thirteen years. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 27–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Biederman, J., Newcorn, J., & Sprich, S. (1991). Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct, depressive, anxiety and other disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 564–477.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Mick, E., & Lelon, E. (1995). Psychiatric comorbidity among referred juveniles with major depression: Fact or artifact? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 579–590.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Milberger, S., Guite, J., Mick, E., Chen, L., Mennin, D., Oulette, C., Moore, P., Spencer, T., Norman, D., Wilens, T., Kraus, L., & Perrin, J. (1996a). A prospective 4-year follow-up study of attention-deficit hyperactivity and related disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 437–446.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Biederman, J., Faraone, S., Milberger, S., Jetton, J. G., Chen, L., Mick, E., Ross, W., Greene, R. W., & Russell, R. L. (1996b). Is childhood oppositional defiant disorder a precursor to adolescent conduct disorder? Findings from a four-year follow-up study of children with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1193–1204.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bird, H. P. R., Canino, G., Rubio-Stipec, M., Gould, M. S., Ribera, J., Sesman, M., et al. (1988). Estimates of the prevalence of childhood maladjustment in a community survey in Puerto Rico. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 1120–1126.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, R. (1991). The self-esteem teacher. AGS.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, R. (1998). Self-esteem: Helping your child become a confident, resilient and persistent learner. In S. Goldstein & N. Mather (Eds.), Overcoming underachieving: An action guide to helping your child succeed in school. Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, R., & Goldstein, S. (2001). Raising Resilient Children. Contemporary Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks, R., & Goldstein, S. (2009). Raising a self-disciplined child. Contemporary Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Burke, J. D., Loeber, R., & Birmaher, B. (2002). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A review of the past 10 years, part II. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 1275–1293.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, S. B. (1991). Longitudinal studies of active and aggressive pre-schoolers: Individual differences in early behavior and outcome. In D. Cicchetti & S. L. Toth (Eds.), Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology. Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell, S. B., & Ewing, L. J. (1990). Follow-up of hard-to-manage preschoolers: Adjustment at age 9 and predictors of continuing symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 871–890.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cantwell, D. P., & Baker, L. (1977). Psychiatric disorder in children with speech and language retardation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 583–591.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cantwell, D. P., & Baker, L. (1989). Stability and natural history of DSM-III childhood diagnoses. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 691–700.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cantwell, D. P., Baker, L., & Mattison, R. (1981). Prevalence, type and correlates of psychiatric disorder in 200 children with communication disorder. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 2, 131–136.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Capaldi, D. M. (1992). The co-occurrence of conduct problems and depressive symptoms in early adolescent boys, II: A 2-year follow-up at grade 8. Developmental Psychology, 4, 125–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cherkasova, M. V., Roy, A., Molina, B. S., Scott, G., Weiss, G., Barkley, R. A., et al. (2021). Review: Adult outcome as seen through controlled prospective follow-up studies of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder followed into adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chmielewski, M., Clark, L. A., Bagby, R. M., & Watson, D. (2015). Method matters: Understanding diagnositc reliability in DSM-IV and DSM-5. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 764–769.

    Google Scholar 

  • Christian, R. E., Frick, P. J., Hill, N. L., Tyler, L., & Frazer, D. R. (1997). Psychopathy and conduct problems in children. II: Implications for subtyping children with conduct problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 233–241.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Christenson, J. D., Crane, D. R., Malloy, J., & Parker, S. (2018). The cost of oppositional defiant disorder and disruptive behavior: A review of the literature. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2649–2658.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clark, R. A., Murphy, D. L., & Constantino, T. N. (1999). Serotonin and externalization behavior in young children. Psychiatry Research, 86, 29–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coccaro, E. F., & McCloskey, M. S. (2019). Phenomenology of impulsive aggression and intermittent explosive disorder. In Intermittent Explosive Disorder (pp. 37–65). Academic Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Cohen, P., & Flory, M. (1998). Issues in the disruptive behavior disorders: Attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity and the differential validity of oppositional defiant and conduct disorders. In T. A. Widiger, A. J. Frances, & H. J. Pincus (Eds.), DSM-IV sourcebook, volume 4 (pp. 455–463). American Psychiatric Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1998). Aggression and anti-social behavior. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.). Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional and personality development (5th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 779–862). Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coie, J. D., & Lenox, K. F. (1994). The development of antisocial individuals. In D. C. Fowles, P. Sutker, & S. H. Goodman (Eds.), Progress in experimental personality and psychopathology research (pp. 45–72). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coie, J. D., & Miller-Johnson, S. (2001). Peer factors and interventions. In R. Loeber & D. P. Farrington (Eds.), Child delinquents (pp. 191–209). Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Coppotelli, H. (1982). Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 557–570.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costello, E. J. (1989). Developments in Child Psychiatric Epidemiology (Special Edition). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 836–841.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, R. J., Putnam, K. M., & Larson, C. L. (2000). Dysfunction in the neuro circuitry of emotion regulation as a possible preclude to violence. Science, 289, 591–594.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dodge, K. A., Price, J. M., Bachorowski, J. A., & Newman, J. P. (1990). Hostile attributional biases in severely aggressive adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 385–392.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Douglas, V. I., & Benezra, E. (1990). Supraspan verbal memory in attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity normal and reading disabled boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 617–638.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2003). ADHD in the schools (2nd ed.). Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eaves, L., Rutter, M., Silberg, J. L., Shillady, L., Maes, H., & Pickles, A. (2000). Genetic and environmental causes of covariation in interview assessments of disruptive behavior in child and adolescent twins. Behavioral Genetics, 30, 321–334.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eddy, J. M., Leve, L. D., & Fagot, B. I. (2001). Coercive family processes: A replication and extension of Patterson’s coercion model. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 14–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Edelbrock, C. (1989). Childhood conduct problems: Developmental consideration and a proposed taxonomy. Unpublished manuscript. University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester,

    Google Scholar 

  • Eiraldi, R. B., Power, T. J., & Nezu, C. M. (1997). Patterns of comorbidity associated with subtypes of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among six-to-twelve year-old children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 503–514.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elliott, D. S., & Menard, S. (1996). Delinquent friends and delinquent behavior: Temporal and developmental patterns. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories. Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Erskine, H. E., Norman, R. E., Ferrari, A. J., Chan, G. C., Copeland, W. E., Whiteford, H. A., & Scott, J. G. (2016). Long-term outcomes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 55(10), 841–850.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fairchild, G., Hawes, D. J., Frick, P. J., Copeland, W. E., Odgers, C. L., Franke, B., et al. (2019). Conduct disorder. Nature Reviews Disease Primers, 5(1), 1–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fairman, K. A., Peckham, A. M., & Sclar, D. A. (2017). Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in the United States: Update by gender and race. Journal of Attention Disorders, 10–19.

    Google Scholar 

  • Farrington, D. P. (1995). The development of offending and antisocial behavior from childhood: Key findings from the Cambridge study in delinquentprogram. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 36, 929–964.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fergusson, D. M., & Lynskey, M. T. (1998). Conduct problems in childhood and psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood: A prospective study. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 6, 2–18.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. T. (1994). Structure of DSM-III-R criteria for disruptive childhood behaviors: Confirmatory factor models. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 1145–1155.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1996). Factors associated with continuity and change in disruptive behavior patterns between childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 553–553.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fergusson, D. M., Lynskey, M. T., & Horwood, L. J. (1997). Attentional difficulties in middle childhood and psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 633–644.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fischer, M., Barkley, R. A., Fletcher, C. S., & Smallish, L. (1990). The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: II. Academic, attentional and neuropsychological status. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 580–588.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fortes, D., Figueiredo, T., Lima, G., Segenreich, D., Serra-Pinheiro, M. A., & Mattos, P. (2020). Disregarding impairment in ADHD diagnosis inflates its prevalence. Journal of Attention Disorders.

    Google Scholar 

  • Frick, P. J. (1994). Family dysfunction and the disruptive behavior disorders: A review of recent empirical findings. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 16, 203–226.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Frick, P. J., Lahey, B. B., & Loeber, R. (1993). Oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder: A meta-analytic review of factor analyses and cross-validation in a clinical sample. Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 319–340.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Girard, L.-C., Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D., & Cote, S. M. (2019). Development of aggression subtypes from childhood to adolescence: A group-based multi-trajectory modeling perspective. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 825–838.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gnanavel, S., Sharma, P., Kaushal, P., & Hussain, S. (2019). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity: A review of literature. World Journal of Clinical Cases, 7(17), 2420.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, S. (2002). Continuity of ADHD in adulthood: Hypothesis and theory meet reality. In S. Goldstein & S. Teeter Ellison (Eds.), Clinician’s guide to adult ADHD: Assessment and intervention. Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, S., & Brooks, R. B. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of resilience in children – Second edition. Springer Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, S., & Brooks, R. B. (2022). The continuing study of resilience in times of a pandemic: This is why we study resilience. In S. Goldstein & R. B. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children – Third edition. Springer Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, S., & Goldstein, M. (1990). Understanding and managing attention deficit disorder in children. Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, S., & Goldstein, M. (1998). Understanding and managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children (2nd ed.). Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldstein, S., & Gordon, M. (2003). Gender issues and ADHD: Sorting fact from fiction. The ADHD Report, 11(4), 7–11.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greene, R. W., Biederman, J., Faraone, S. V., Sienna, M., & Garcia-Jones, J. (1997). Adolescent outcome of boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social disability: Results from a four-year longitudinal follow-up study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 758–767.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Guerra, N. G., Huesmann, L. R., Tolan, P. H., Van Acker, R., & Eron, L. D. (1995). Stressful events and individual beliefs as correlates of economic disadvantage and aggression among urban children. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 63, 518–528.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hechtman, L. (1999). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In M. Weiss, L. T. Hechtman, & G. Weiss (Eds.), ADHD in adulthood: A guide to current theory, diagnosis and treatment (pp. 17–38). John Hopkins University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hechtman, L., Weiss, G., & Perlman, T. (1984). Hyperactives as young adults: Initial predictors of adult outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 25, 250–260.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Herrero, M. E., Hechtman, L., & Weiss, G. (1994). Children with deficits in attention, motor control and perception almost grown up: The contribution of various background factors to outcome at age sixteen years. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3, 1–15.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hinshaw, S. P. (1987). On the distinction between attention deficits/hyperactivity and conduct problems/aggression in child psychopathology. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 443–463.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hofgaard, L. S., Nes, R. B., & Roysamb, E. (2021). Introducing two types of psychological resilience with partly unique gentic and environmental sources. Scientific Reports.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ingram, S., Hechtman, L., & Morgenstern, G. (1999). Outcome issues and ADHD: Adolescent and adult long-term outcome. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 5, 243–250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jensen, P. S., Martin, D. P., & Cantwell, D. P. (1997). Comorbidity in ADHD: Implications for research practice and DSM-V. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1065–1079.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jiang, X., Zhu, Y., & Fang, Y. (2019). Response inhibition and emotional regulation in the patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity of disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders. Korean Neuropsychiatric Association.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Katz, M. (1997). On playing a poor hand well. Norton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kellam, S. G., Simon, M. B., & Ensminger, M. E. (1983). Antecedents in first grade of teenage substance use and psychological Well-being: A ten-year community-wide perspective study. In D. F. Ricks & B. S. Dohrenwend (Eds.), Origins of psychopathology. Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kelly, B. T., Loeber, R., Keenan, K., & DeLamatre, M. (1997). Developmental pathways in boys’ disruptive and delinquent behavior. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. U.S. Department of Justice.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Klein, K., & Forehand, R. (1997). Delinquency during the transition to early adulthood: Family and parenting predictors from early adolescence. Adolescence, 32, 61–78.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kruesi, M. J. P., Rapoport, J. L., Hamburger, S., Hibbs, E., Potter, W. Z., Lenane, M., & Brown, G. L. (1990). Cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites, aggression, and impulsivity in disruptive behavioral disorders of children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 419–426.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., Christ, M. A. G., Green, S., Russo, M. F., Frick, P. J., & Dulcan, M. (1990a). Comparison of DSM-III and DSM-III-R diagnoses for prepubertal children: Changes in prevalence and validity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 620–626.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lahey, B. B., Frick, P. J., Loeber, R., Tannenbaum, B. A., Van Horn, Y., & Christ, M. A. G. (1990b). Oppositional and conduct disorder: I. A meta-analytic review. Unpublished manuscript. University of Georgia, Athens.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Quay, H. C., Applegate, B., Shaffer, D., Waldman, I., Hart, E. L., McBurnett, K., Frick, P. J., Jensen, P. S., Dulcan, M. K., Canino, G., & Bird, H. (1998). Validity of DSM-IV subtypes of conduct disorder based on age of onset. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 435–442.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lewinsohn, P. M., Rhode, P., & Seeley, J. R. (1994). Adolescent psychopathology: III. The clinical consequences of comorbidity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 510–519.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loeber, R., & Keenan, K. (1994). Interaction between conduct disorder and its comorbid conditions: Effects of age and gender. Clnical Psychology Review, 14, 497–523.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loeber, R., & Schmaling, K. B. (1985). Empirical evidence for overt and covert patterns of antisocial conduct problems: A metaanalysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13(2), 337–353.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Loeber, R., Keenan, K., Russo, M. F., Green, S. M., Lahey, B. B., & Thomas, C. (1988). Secondary data analyses for DSM-IV on the symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In T. A. Widiger, A. J. Frances, & H. J. Pincus (Eds.), DSM-IV sourcebook, volume 4 (pp. 465–490). American Psychiatric Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loeber, R., Lahey, B. B., & Thomas, C. (1991). Diagnostic conundrum of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 379–390.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Keenan, K., & Lahey, B. B. (1995). Which boys will fare worse? Early predictors of the onset of conduct disorder in a six-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 499–509.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Loeber, R., Keenan, K., & Zhang, Q. (1997). Boys’ experimentation and persistence in developmental pathways toward serious delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 321–357.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Loeber, R., Burke, J., Lahey, B. B., Winters, A., & Zera, M. (2000). Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: A review of the past 10 years, part I. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1468–1484.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Loney, J., Whaley-Klahn, M. A., & Kosier, T. (1983). Hyperactaive boys and their brothers at 21: Predictors of aggressive and antisocial outcomes. In K. T. Van Dusen & S. A. Mednick (Eds.), Prospective studies of crime and delinquency (pp. 181–206). Kluwer-Nijhoff.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Luntz, B. K., & Widom, C. S. (1994). Antisocial personality disorder in abused and neglected children grown up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 670–674.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • MacFarlane, J. W., Allen, L., & Honziak, M. P. (1962). A developmental study of the behavior problems of normal children between twenty-one months and fourteen years. Berkley University: California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • McClelland, J. M., Rubert, M. P., Reichler, R. J., & Sylvester, C. E. (1989). Attention deficit disorder in children at risk for anxiety and depression. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 534–539.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McDowell, M. J., & Rappaport, L. R. (1992). Neurodevelopmental comorbidity with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A clinical review. Paper presented at the 10th annual meeting of the Society for Behavioral Pedicatrics. St. Louis, Mo.

    Google Scholar 

  • McGee, R., & Share, D. L. (1988). Attention deficit disorder hyperactivity and academic failure: Which comes first and what should be treated. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 318–325.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McGee, R., Silva, P. A., & Williams, S. (1984). Behavior problems in a population of seven-year-old children: Prevalence, stability and types of disorder - a research report. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 25, 251–259.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychology, 53, 185–204.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mezzacappa, E., Tremblay, R. E., & Kindlon, D. (1997). Aniety, antisocial behavior, and heart rate regulation in adolescent males. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 457–469.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Milich, R. (1994). The response of children with ADHD to failure: If at first you don’t succeed, do try, try again? School Psychology Review, 23, 11–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Milich, R., & Landau, S. (1981). Socialization and peer relations in the hyperactive child. In K. D. Gadow & I. Bailer (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavior disabilities (Vol. 1). JAI Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Milich, R., Landau, S., Kilby, G., & Whitten, P. (1982). Preschool peer perceptions of the behavior of hyperactive and aggressive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 497–510.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Moffitt, T. E. (1990). Juvenile delinquency and attention deficit disorder: Developmental self-reported delinquents. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 105–118.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence limited and life-course-persistent to anti-social behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Moffitt, T. E., Brammer, G. L., & Caspi, A. (1998). Whoile blood serotonin relates to violence in epidemiological study. Biological Psychiatry, 43, 446–457.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. J. (2002). Males on the life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited anti-social pathways: Follow-up at age twenty-six years. Development and Psychopathology, 14, 179–207.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Molina, L. R. (1990). Adoptees may be at risk for hyperaactivity but no one knows why. Adopted Child, 9, 1–2.

    Google Scholar 

  • Morris, S., Siberras, E., & Sheen, J. (2020). Interventions for adolescents with ADHD to improve peer social functioning: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Attention Disorders.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mota, V. L., & Schachar, R. J. (2000). Reformulating ADHD according to signal detection theory. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1144–1151.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). Trajectories of boys’ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and nonviolent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70(5), 1181–1196.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Najman, J. (2019). Does adolescent heavier alcohol use predict young adult aggression and delinquency? Parallel analyses from four Australasian cohort studies. Aggressive Behavior, 427–436.

    Google Scholar 

  • Needleman, H. L., Riess, J. A., Tobin, M. J., Biesecker, G. E., & Greenhouse, J. B. (1996). Bone lead levels and delinquent behavior. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275, 363–369.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nelson, K. B., & Ellenberg, J. H. (1979). Apgar scores and long-term neurological handicap (abstract). Annals of Neurology, 6, 182.

    Google Scholar 

  • Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2000). Second chances: Giving kids a chance to make a better choice. U.S. Department of Justice, Publication #NCJ181680 (May, 2000).

    Google Scholar 

  • Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention 2020 Annual Report. (2021). OJJDP Annual Reports to Congress.

    Google Scholar 

  • Offord, D. R., Boyle, M. H., Szatmari, P., Rae-Grant, N., Links, P. S., Cadman, D. T., et al. (1987). Ontario child health study: II: six month prevalence of disorder and rates of service utilization. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 832–836.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ogundele, M. O. (2018). Behavioural and emotional disorders in childhood: A brief overview for paediatricians. World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, 7(1), 9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B. D., & Ramsey, E. (1989). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329–335.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pliszka, S. R. (1999). The psychobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders (pp. 371–395). Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Puiu, A., Wudarczyk, O., Goerlich, K. S., Votinov, M., Herpertz-Dahlmann, B., Turetsky, B., & Konrad, K. (2018). Impulsive aggression and response inhibition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and disruptive behavioural disorders: Findings from a systemic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 231–246.

    Google Scholar 

  • Quay, H. C. (1986). A critical analysis of DSM-III as a taxonomy of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence. In T. Millon & G. L. Klerman (Eds.), Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV (pp. 151–165). The Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Raine, A., Venables, P. H., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 years and criminality at age 24 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1060–1064.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Raine, A., Buchsbaum, M., & LaCasse, L. (1997). Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by positron emission tomography. Biological Psychiatry, 42(6), 495–508.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ramos-Olazagasti, M. A., Castellanos, F. X., Mannuzza, S., & Klein, R. G. (2018). Predicting the adult functional outcomes of boys with ADHD 33 years later. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 57(8), 571–582.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ringer, N. (2020). Living with ADHD: A meta-synthesis review of qualitative. International Journal of Disability, Development, and Education, 208–224.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robins, L. N. (1991). Conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 32, 193–212.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Robson, D., Allen, M. S., & Howard, S. J. (2020). Self-regulation in childhood as a predictor of future outcomes: A meta-analytic review. University of Wollongong.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rose, S. L., Rose, S. A., & Feldman, J. F. (1989). Stability of behavior problems in very young children. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 5–19.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M., Tizard, J., & Whitmore, K. (1970). Education health and behaviour. Longmass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sanson, A., & Prior, M. (1999). Temperament and behavioral precursors to oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorder (pp. 397–417). Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Seidman, L. J., Benedict, K. B., Biederman, J., & Bernstein, J. H. (1995). Performance of children with ADHD on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: A pilot neuropsychology study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 36, 1459–1473.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Semrud-Clikeman, M., Biederman, J., Sprich-Buckminister, S., Krifcher, L., Lehman, B., Faraone, S. V., & Norman, D. (1992). The incidence of ADHD and concurrent learning disabilities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 439–448.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Still, G. F. (1902). The Coulstonian lectures on some abnormal physical conditions in children. Lancet, 1, 1008–1012.

    Google Scholar 

  • Szatmari, P., Boyle, M., & Offord, D. R. (1989). ADHD and conduct disorder: Degree of diagnostic overlap and differences among correlates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 865–872.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, E., Schachar, R., Thorley, G., & Wieselberg, M. (1986). Conduct disorder and hyperactivity: I. Separation of hyperactivity and antisocial conduct in British child psychiatric patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 760–767.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teeter, P. A. (1998). Interventions for ADHD: Treatment in developmental context. Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Teeter Ellison, A. (2002). An overview of childhood and adolescent ADHD: Understanding the complexities of development into the adult years. In S. Goldstein & S. Teeter Ellison (Eds.), Clinician’s guide to adult ADHD: Assessment and intervention. Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tistarelli, N., Fagnani, C., Troianiello, M., Stazi, M. A., & Adriani, W. (2020). The nature and nurture of ADHD and its comorbidities: A narrative review on twin studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 63–77.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tremblay, R. E. (1990). Socialization fails: The case of the chronic physical aggression. In B. P. Lahey, T. E. Moffit and A. Caspi (Eds.). Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp.185–206). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tremblay, R. E. (2003). Why socialization fails: The case of the chronic physical aggression. In B. B. Lahey, T. E. Moffitt, & A. Caspi (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency. Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Uchida, M., Spencer, T. J., Faraone, S. V., & Biederman, J. (2017). Adult outcome of ADHD: An overview of results from the MGH longitudinal family studies of Pediatrically and psychiatrically referred youth WIth and without ADHD of both sexes. Journal of Attention Disorders.

    Google Scholar 

  • Usami, M. (2016). Functional consequences of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on children and their families. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 303–317.

    Google Scholar 

  • Velez, C. N., Johnson, J., & Cohen, P. (1989). A longitudinal analysis of selected risk factors of childhood psychopathology. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 782–784.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wakschlag, L. S., Lahey, B. B., Loeber, R., Green, S. M., Gordon, R., & Leventhal, B. L. (1997). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of conduct disorder in boys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 670–676.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wasserman, G. A., Miller, L. S., Pinner, E., & Jaramilo, B. (1996). Parenting predictors of early conduct problems in urban, high-risk boys. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1227–1236.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. (1993). Hyperactive children grown up: ADHD in children, adolescents and adults (2nd ed.). Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • White, H. R., Bates, M. E., & Buyske, S. (2001). Adolescence-limited versus persistent delinquency: Extending Moffitt’s hypothesis into adulthood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 600–609.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wickström, P. O., & Loeber, R. (2000). Do disadvantaged neighborhoods cause well-adjusted children to become adolescent delinquents? A study of male juvenile serious offending, risk and protective factors, and neighborhood context. Criminology, 38, 1109–1141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zentall, S. S., Harper, G., & Stormont-Spurgin, M. (1993). Children with hyperactivity and their organization abilities. Journal of Educational Research, 87, 112–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sam Goldstein .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Goldstein, S., Rider, R., Velez, A. (2023). Resilience and Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders of Childhood. In: Goldstein, S., Brooks, R.B. (eds) Handbook of Resilience in Children. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-14728-9_8

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics