Skip to main content

Ozone in the Mediterranean Atmosphere

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Atmospheric Chemistry in the Mediterranean Region

Abstract

The Mediterranean basin is one of many regions worldwide where elevated concentrations of air pollutants have been frequently reported. It is also one of the global tropospheric ozone hot spots, especially during the summer months. A short overview on Mediterranean ozone, based mainly on surface ozone data, is presented. Furthermore, aspects of atmospheric chemistry research with emphasis on tropospheric and surface ozone in Greece, the Aegean Sea, and the eastern Mediterranean as well as in the western Mediterranean, are discussed. The relevant research started in the mid-1970s, and it was mainly focused on surface ozone due to photochemical smog events at large urban agglomerations such as Athens, Greece. The ozone research in the 1990s gradually expanded from the urban scale to the regional scale with the establishment of baseline and rural monitoring stations to better understand the role of ozone precursors as well as the associated physical and chemical processes in the Mediterranean. The atmospheric processes associated with ozone in the eastern and western Mediterranean have been further investigated during the last couple of decades through many observational studies based on surface, profile, satellite, and aircraft measurements carried out within the framework of continuous monitoring activities or international field campaigns.

Chapter reviewed by Paul Young (Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK), as part of the book Part IV also reviewed by Christine F. Braban (UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh site, Midlothian EH26 0QB, UK).

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  • Akritidis, D., Zanis, P., Pytharoulis, I., Mavrakis, A., and Karacostas, Th.: A deep stratospheric intrusion event down to the earth’s surface of the megacity of Athens, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 109, 9–18, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-010-0096-6, 2010.

  • Akritidis, D., Pozzer, A., Zanis, P., Tyrlis, E., Skerlak, B., Sprenger, M., Wernli, H., and Lelieveld, J.: On the role of tropopause folds in summertime tropospheric ozone over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14025–14039, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-14025-2016, 2016.

  • Alexandri, G., Georgoulias, A. K., Zanis, P., Katragkou, E., Tsikerdekis, A., Kourtidis, K., and Meleti, C.: On the ability of RegCM4 regional climate model to simulate surface solar radiation patterns over Europe: an assessment using satellite-based observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13195–13216, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-13195-2015, 2015.

  • Ancellet, G., and Beekmann, M.: Evidence for changes in the ozone concentrations in the free troposphere over southern France from 1976 to 1995, Atmos. Environ., 31, 2835–2851, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00032-0, 1997.

  • Ancellet, G., and Ravetta, F.: Analysis and validation of ozone variability observed by lidar during the ESCOMPTE-2001 campaign, Atmos. Res., 74, 435–459, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.10.003, 2005.

  • Ancellet, G., Pelon, J., Totems, J., Chazette, P., Bazureau, A., Sicard, M., Di Iorio, T., Dulac, F., and Mallet, M.: Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4725–4742, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-4725-2016, 2016.

  • Balis, D. S., Zerefos, C. S., Kourtidis, K. A., Bais, F., Hofzumahaus, A., Kraus, A., Schmitt, R., Blumthaler, M. G., and Gobbi P.: Measurements and modeling of photolysis rates during the Photochemical Activity and Ultraviolet Radiation (PAUR) II campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8138, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000136, 2002.

  • Beekmann, M., and Vautard, R.: A modelling study of photochemical regimes over Europe: robustness and variability, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10067–10084, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-10067-2010, 2010

  • Bénech, B., Ezcurra, A., Lothon, M., Said, F., Campistron, B., Lohou, F., and Durand, P.: Constant volume balloons measurements in the urban Marseille and Fos-Berre industrial ozone plumes during ESCOMPTE experiment, Atmos. Environ., 42, 5589–5601, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.03.011, 2008.

  • Bonasoni, P., Stohl, A., Cristofanelli, P., Calzolari, F., Colombo, T., and Evangelisti, F.: Background ozone variations at Mt. Cimone Station, Atmos. Environ., 34, 5183–5189, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.012, 2000.

  • Bonasoni, P., Cristofanelli, P., Calzolari, F., Bonafè, U., Evangelisti, F., Stohl, A., Zauli Sajani, S., van Dingenen, R., Colombo, T., and Balkanski, Y.: Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1201–1215, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-4-1201-2004, 2004.

  • Bossioli E., Tombrou, M., Dandou, A., and Soulakellis, N.: Simulation of the effects of critical factors on ozone formation and accumulation in the greater Athens area, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D02309, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007185, 2007.

  • Bouchlaghem K., F. B. Mansour, and Elouragini S.: Impact of a sea breeze event on air pollution at the Eastern Tunisian Coast, Atmos. Res., 86, 162–172, https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/863528, 2007.

  • Brocchi, V., Krysztofiak, G., Catoire, V., Guth, J., Marécal, V., Zbinden, R., El Amraoui, L., Dulac, F., and Ricaud, P.: Intercontinental transport of biomass burning pollutants over the Mediterranean Basin during the summer 2014 ChArMEx-GLAM airborne campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6887–6906, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-6887-2018, 2018.

  • Carslaw D. C., Murrells, T. P., Andersson, J., and Keenan, M.: Have vehicle emissions of primary NO2 peaked?, Faraday Discuss., 189, 439–454, https://doi.org/10.1039/C5FD00162E, 2016.

  • Castell, N., Mantilla, E., and Millán, M. M.: Analysis of tropospheric ozone concentration on a Western Mediterranean site: Castellon (Spain), Environ. Monit. Assess., 136, 3–11, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9723-1, 2008.

  • Cohen, Y., Petetin, H., Thouret, V., Marécal, V., Josse, B., Clark, H., Sauvage, B., Fontaine, A., Athier, G., Blot, R., Boulanger, D., Cousin, J.-M., and Nédélec, P.: Climatology and long-term evolution of ozone and carbon monoxide in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere (UTLS) at northern midlatitudes, as seen by IAGOS from 1995 to 2013, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5415–5453, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-5415-2018, 2018.

  • Colette, A., and Ancellet, G.: Impact of vertical transport processes on the tropospheric ozone layering above Europe. Part II: Climatological analysis of the past 30 years, Atmos. Environ., 39, 5423–5435, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.06.015, 2005.

  • Colette, A., Aas, W., Banin, L., Braban, C. F., Ferm, M., González Ortiz, A., Ilyin, I., Mar, K., Pandolfi, M., Putaud, J.-P., Shatalov, V., Solberg, S., Spindler, G., Tarasova, O., Vana, M., Adani, M., Almodovar, P., Berton, E., Bessagnet, B., Bohlin-Nizzetto, P., Boruvkova, J., Breivik, K., Briganti, G., Cappelletti, A., Cuvelier, K., Derwent, R., D’Isidoro, M., Fagerli, H., Funk, C., Garcia Vivanco, M., González Ortiz, A., Haeuber, R., Hueglin, C., Jenkins, S., Kerr, J., de Leeuw, F., Lynch, J., Manders, A., Mircea, M., Pay, M. T., Pritula, D., Putaud, J.-P., Querol, X., Raffort, V., Reiss, I., Roustan, Y., Sauvage, S., Scavo, K., Simpson, D., Smith, R. I., Tang, Y. S., Theobald, M., Tørseth, K., Tsyro, S., van Pul, A., Vidic, S., Wallasch, M., and Wind, P.: Air pollution trends in the EMEP region between 1990 and 2012, EMEP/CCC-Report 1/2016, NILU, Kjeller, Norway, 107 pp., https://projects.nilu.no//ccc/reports/cccr1-2016.pdf (last access 27 Sept. 2022), 2016.

  • Costantino, L., Cuesta, J., Emili, E., Coman, A., Foret, G., Dufour, G., Eremenko, M., Chailleux, Y., Beekmann, M., and Flaud, J.-M.: Potential of multispectral synergism for observing ozone pollution by combining IASI-NG and UVNS measurements from the EPS-SG satellite, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1281–1298, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-1281-2017, 2017.

  • Cristofanelli, P., Bonasoni, P., Tositti, L., Bonafe, U., Calzolari, F., Evangelisti, F., Sandrini, S., and Stohl, A.: A 6-year analysis of stratospheric intrusions and their influence on ozone at Mt. Cimone (2165 m above sea level), J. Geophys. Res., 111, D03306, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006553, 2006.

  • Cristofanelli, P., Bonasoni, P., Carboni, G., Calzolari, F., Casarola, L., Zauli Sajani, S., and Santaguida, R.: Anomalous high ozone concentrations recorded at a high mountain station in Italy in summer 2003, Atmos. Environ., 41, 1383–1394, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.017, 2007.

  • Cristofanelli, P., and Bonasoni, P.: Background ozone in the southern Europe and Mediterranean area: influence of the transport processes, Environ. Poll., 157, 399–1406, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.09.017, 2009.

  • Cristofanelli, P., Fierli, F., Marinoni, A., Calzolari, F., Duchi, R., Burkhart, J., Stohl, A., Maione, M., Arduini, J., and Bonasoni, P.: Influence of biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions on ozone, carbon monoxide and black carbon at the Mt. Cimone GAW-WMO global station (Italy, 2165 m asl), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 15–30, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-15-2013, 2013.

  • Cristofanelli, P., Scheel, H. E., Steinbacher, M., Saliba, M., Azzopardi, F., Ellul, R., Fröhlich, M., Tositti, L., Brattich, E., Maione, M., Calzolari, F., Dulchi, R., Landi, T. C., Marinoni, A., and Bonasoni, P.: Long-term surface ozone variability at Mt. Cimone WMO/GAW global station (2165 m asl, Italy), Atmos. Environ., 101, 23–33, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.012, 2015.

  • Cristofanelli, P., Landi T. C., Calzolari F., Duchi R., Marinoni A., Rinaldi M., and Bonasoni P.: Summer atmospheric composition over the Mediterranean basin: Investigation on transport processes and pollutant export to the free troposphere by observations at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.), Atmos. Environ., 141, 139–152, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.048, 2016.

  • Cros, B, Durand, P., Cachier, H., Drobinski, Ph., Fréjafon, E., Kottmeier, C., Perros, P. E., Peuch, V.-H., Ponche, J.-L., Robin, D., Saı̈d, F., Toupance, G., and Wortham, H.: The ESCOMPTE program: an overview, Atmos. Res., 69, 241–279, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2003.05.001, 2004.

  • Dayan, U.: Synoptic scale circulation and mesoscale processes, In: Atmospheric Chemistry in the Mediterranean – Vol. 1, Background Information and Pollutant Distribution, Dulac, F., Sauvage, S., and Hamonou, E., Eds, Springer, this volume (pp. 113–126), https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-12741-0_6, 2023.

  • Dieguez, J. J., Millán, M., Padilla, L., and Palau, J. L.: Estudio y evaluación de la contaminación atmosférica por ozono troposférico en España, CEAM Report for the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, INF FIN/O3/2009, 372 pp., https://www.miteco.gob.es/es/calidad-y-evaluacion-ambiental/temas/atmosfera-y-calidad-del-aire/8_A_Informe%20final%20ozono-ceam%20Julio%202009_tcm30-188048.pdf (last access: 29 Sept. 2022), 2009.

  • Dieguez, J. J., Calatayud, V., and Mantilla, E.: CEAM Report for the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Fundación Biodiversidad, Informe Final, Memoria Técnica Proyecto CONOZE, CONtaminación por OZono en España, 137 pp., https://www.miteco.gob.es/es/calidad-y-evaluacion-ambiental/temas/atmosfera-y-calidad-del-aire/Informe_t%C3%A9cnico_CONOZE%5B1%5D_tcm30-187899.pdf (last access: 29 Sept. 2022), 2014.

  • Doche, C., Dufour, G., Foret, G., Eremenko, M., Cuesta, J., Beekmann, M., and Kalabokas, P.: Summertime tropospheric-ozone variability over the Mediterranean basin observed with IASI, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10589–10600, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-10589-2014, 2014.

  • Doerenbecher, A., Basdevant, C., Drobinski, P., Durand, P., Fesquet, C., Bernard, F., Cocquerez, P., Verdier, N., and Vargas, A.: Low atmosphere drifting balloons: platforms for environment monitoring and forecast improvement, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 97, 1583–1599, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00182.1, 2016.

  • Drobinski, P., Saïd, F., Ancellet, G., Arteta, J., Augustin, P., Bastin, S., Brut, A., Caccia, J. L., Campistron, B., Cautenet, S., Colette, A., Coll, I., Corsmeier, U., Cros, B., Dabas, A., Delbarre, H., Dufour, A., Durand, P., Guénard, V., Hasel, M., Kalthoff, N., Kottmeier, C., Lasry, F., Lemonsu, A., Lohou, F., Masson, V., Menut, L., Moppert, C., Peuch, V. H., Puygrenier, V., Reitebuch, O., and Vautard, R.: Regional transport and dilution during high-pollution episodes in southern France: Summary of findings from the field Experiment to Constraint Models of Atmospheric Pollution and Emissions Transport (ESCOMPTE), J. Geophys. Res., 112, D13105, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007494, 2007.

  • Dufour A., M. Amodei, G. Ancellet, V.-H. Peuch, Observed and modelled “chemical weather” during ESCOMPTE, Atmos. Res., 74, 1–4, 161–189, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.04.013, 2005.

  • Dufour, G., Eremenko, M., Beekmann, M., Cuesta, J., Foret, G., Fortems-Cheiney, A., Lachâtre, M., Lin, W., Liu, Y., Xu, X., and Zhang, Y.: Lower tropospheric ozone over the North China Plain: variability and trends revealed by IASI satellite observations for 2008–2016, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16439–16459, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-16439-2018, 2018.

  • Durieux, E., Fiorani L., Calpini B., Flamm M., Jaquet L., and Van Den Bergh H.: Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE Campaign with a new shot-per-shot dial instrument: Experimental system and results, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2141–2150, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00426-3, 1998.

  • EEA: Air quality in Europe-2017 report, EEA Report, No 13/2017, ISBN 978-92-9213-920-9, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 74 pp., available at: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/air-quality-in-europe-2017 (last access: 27 Sept. 2022), 2017.

  • Economopoulos, A. P.: Development of the five-year air pollution abatement plan for the greater Athens area, J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., 37, 889–897, https://doi.org/10.1080/08940630.1987.10466281, 1987.

  • Eremenko, M., Dufour, G., Foret, G., Keim, C., Orphal, J., Beekmann, M., Bergametti, G., and Flaud, J.-M.: Tropospheric ozone distributions over Europe during the heat wave in July 2007 observed from infrared Nadir spectra measured by IASI, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL034803, 2008.

  • Escudero, M., Lozano, A., Hierro, J., del Valle, J., and Mantilla, E.: Urban influence on increasing ozone concentrations in a characteristic Mediterranean agglomeration, Atmos. Environ., 99, 322–332, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.09.061, 2014.

  • Escudero, M., Segers, A., Kranenburg, R., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Borge, R., de la Paz, D., Gangoiti, G., and Schaap, M.: Analysis of summer O3 in the Madrid air basin with the LOTOS-EUROS chemical transport model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14211–14232, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-14211-2019, 2019.

  • Fiorani, L., B. Calpini, L. Jaquet, H. van den Bergh, and E. Durieux: A combined determination of wind velocities and ozone concentrations for a first measurement of ozone fluxes with a DIAL instrument during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2151–2159, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00429-9, 1998.

  • Fischer, H., Kormann, R., Klüpfel, T., Gurk, Ch., Königstedt, R., Parchatka, U., Mühle, J., Rhee, T. S., Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M., Bonasoni, P., and Stohl, A.: Ozone production and trace gas correlations during the June 2000 MINATROC intensive measurement campaign at Mt. Cimone, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 725–738, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-725-2003, 2003.

  • Galani, E., Balis, D., Zanis, P., Zerefos, C. S., Papayannis, A., Wernli, H., and Gerasopoulos, E.: Observations of Stratosphere-Troposphere Transport events over eastern Mediterranean using a ground-based lidar system, J. Geophys. Res., 108, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002596, 2003.

  • Gangoiti, G., Millán, M. M., Salvador, R., and Mantilla, E.: Long-range transport and re-circulation of pollutants in the western Mediterranean during the project Regional Cycles of Air Pollution in the West-Central Mediterranean Area, Atmos. Environ., 35, 6267–6276, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00440-X, 2001.

  • Garcia Dos Santos, S., Benarroch, R., Fernández Patier, R., Sintes Puertas, M. A., Cantón Gálvez, J. M., Alonso Herreros, J., and Guevara Hernández, S.: Atmospheric Pollution in North Africa. Facts and lessons in the Spanish City of Ceuta, 9th Int. Conf. Air Quality Science and Application, 24–28 March 2014, Garmisch, Germany, 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaudel, A., Ancellet, G., and Godin-Beekmann, S.: Analysis of 20 years of tropospheric ozone vertical profiles by lidar and ECC at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP) at 44°N, 6.7°E, Atmos. Environ., 113, 78-89, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.04.028, 2015.

  • Gaudel, A., Cooper, O. R., Ancellet, G., Barret, B., Boynard, A., Burrows, J. P., Clerbaux, C., Coheur, P.-F., Cuesta, J., Cuevas, E., Doniki, S., Dufour, G., Ebojie, F., Foret, G., Garcia, O., Granados-Muñoz, M. J., Hannigan, J. W., Hase, F., Hassler, B., Huang, G., Hurtmans, D., Jaffe, D., Jones, N., Kalabokas, P., Kerridge, B., Kulawik, S., Latter, B., Leblanc, T., Le Flochmoën, E., Lin, W., Liu, J., Liu, X., Mahieu, E., McClure-Begley, A., Neu, J. L., Osman, M., Palm, M., Petetin, H., Petropavlovskikh, I., Querel, R., Rahpoe, N., Rozanov, A., Schultz, M. G., Schwab, J., Siddans, R., Smale, D, Steinbacher, M., Tanimoto, H., Tarasick, D. W., Thouret, V., Thompson, A. M., Trickl, T., Weatherhead, E., Wespes, C., Worden, H., Vigouroux, C., Xu, X., Zeng, G., and Ziemke, J.: Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day distribution and trends of tropospheric ozone relevant to climate and global atmospheric chemistry model evaluation, Elem. Sci. Anth., 6, 39, https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.291, 2018.

  • Georgiadis, T., Giovanelli, G., and Fortezza, F.: Vertical layering of photochemical ozone during land-sea breeze transport, Nuovo Cimento, 17, 371–375, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02509176, 1994.

  • Gerasopoulos, E., Kouvarakis, G., Vrekoussis, M., Kanakidou, M., and Mihalopoulos, N.: Ozone variability in the marine boundary layer of the eastern Mediterranean based on 7-year observations, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D15309, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD005991, 2005.

  • Gerasopoulos, E., Kouvarakis, G., Vrekoussis, M., Donoussis, C., Mihalopoulos, N., and Kanakidou, M.: Photochemical ozone production in the Eastern Mediterranean, Atmos. Environ., 40, 3057–3069, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.12.061, 2006.

  • Gheusi, F.: Ozone photochemical production rates in the western Mediterranean, in Atmospheric Chemistry in the Mediterranean Region (Vol. 2, From Air Pollutant Sources to Impacts), Dulac, F., Sauvage, S., and Hamonou, E., Eds., Springer, 139–153, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82385-6_8, 2022.

  • Gheusi, F., Durand, P., Verdier, N., Dulac, F., Attié, J.-L., Commun, P., Barret, B., Basdevant, C., Clenet, A., Derrien, S., Doerenbecher, A., El Amraoui, L., Fontaine, A., Hache, E., Jambert, C., Jaumouillé, E., Meyerfeld, Y., Roblou, L., and Tocquer, F.: Adapted ECC ozonesonde for long-duration flights aboard boundary-layer pressurised balloons, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5811–5832, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-9-5811-2016, 2016.

  • Giorgi, F.: Climate change hot-spots. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L08707, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL025734, 2006.

  • Guieu, C., D’Ortenzio, F., Dulac, F., Taillandier, V., Doglioli, A., Petrenko, A., Barrillon, S., Mallet, M., Nabat, P., and Desboeufs, K.: Introduction: Process studies at the air–sea interface after atmospheric deposition in the Mediterranean Sea – objectives and strategy of the PEACETIME oceanographic campaign (May–June 2017), Biogeosciences, 17, 5563–5585, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-17-5563-2020, 2020.

  • Güsten, H., Heinrich, G., Cvitas, T., Klasinc, L., Ruščič, B., Lalas, D. P., and Petrakis, M.: Photochemical formation and transport of ozone in Athens, Greece, Atmos. Environ., 22, 1855–1861, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(88)90074-1, 1988.

  • Güsten, H., Heinrich, G., Mönnich, E., Weppner, J., Cvitaš, T., Klasinc, L., Varotsos, C. A., and Asimakopoulos, D. N.: Thessaloniki ‘91 Field Measurement Campaign – II. Ozone formation in the Greater Thessaloniki Area, Atmos. Environ., 31, 1115–1126, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(96)00050-7, 1997.

  • Hauglustaine, D. A., Hourdin, F., Jourdain, L., Filiberti M.-A., Walters, S., Lamarque, J.-F., and Holland, E. A.: Interactive chemistry in the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique general circulation model: description and background tropospheric chemistry evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., D4, D04314, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003957, 2004.

  • Hildebrandt, L., Engelhart, G. J., Mohr, C., Kostenidou, E., Lanz, V. A., Bougiatioti, A., De Carlo, P. F., Prevot, A. S. H., Baltensperger, U., Mihalopoulos, N., Donahue, N. M., and Pandis, S. N.: Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia aerosol measurement experiment–2008, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4167–4186, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-4167-2010, 2010.

  • Hofzumahaus, A., Kraus, A., Kylling, A., and Zerefos, C. S.: Solar actinic radiation (280-420 nm) in the cloud-free troposphere between ground and 12 km altitude: Measurements and model results, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8139, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD900142, 2002.

  • Im, U., Markakis, K., Poupkou, A., Melas, D., Unal, A., Gerasopoulos, E., Daskalakis, N., Kindap, T., and Kanakidou, M.: The impact of temperature changes on summer time ozone and its precursors in the Eastern Mediterranean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3847–3864, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-3847-2011, 2011.

  • IPCC: Annex I: Atlas of Global and Regional Climate Projections, van Oldenborgh, G. J., Collins, M., Arblaster, J., Christensen, J. H., Marotzke, J., Power, S. B., Rummukainen, M., and Zhou, T., Eds., in Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., Nauels, A., Xia, Y., Bex, V., and Midgley, P. M., Eds., Cambridge University Press, New York, 1311–1393, https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/WG1AR5_all_final.pdf, 2013.

  • Jimenez, P., Lelieveld, J., and Baldasano, J. M.: Multiscale modeling of air pollutants dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean basin during a typical summertime episode, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D18306, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006516, 2006.

  • Joly, M., and Peuch, V.-H.: Objective classification of air quality monitoring sites over Europe, Atmos. Environ., 47, 111–123, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.11.025, 2012.

  • Kalabokas, P., Varotsos, C., and Vlassi, A.: A historical record of ozone data at ground level in Athens, Greece (1930–1940) (in French), in Maheras, P., Ed., Publications de l’Association Internationale de Climatologie, Aix-en-Provence, France, 6, 631–638, 1993.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalabokas, P., Amanatidis, G., and Bartzis, J.: Rural ozone levels at an Eastern Mediterranean site (Attica, Greece), in Proc. XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symp., Bojkov, R., and Visconti, G., Eds., L’Aquila, Italy, 379–382, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalabokas, P., and Bartzis, J.: Photochemical air pollution characteristics at the station of the NCSR-Demokritos, during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign, Greece (20 August–20 September, 1994), Atmos. Environ., 32, 2123–2139, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00423-8, 1998.

  • Kalabokas, P. D., Viras, L. G., Bartzis, J. G., and Repapis, C. C.: Mediterranean rural ozone characteristics around the urban area of Athens, Atmos. Environ., 34, 5199–5208, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00298-3, 2000.

  • Kalabokas, P. D., and Repapis, C. C.: A climatological study of rural surface ozone in central Greece, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 1139–1147, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-4-1139-2004, 2004.

  • Kalabokas, P. D., Chronopoulos, G, Varotsos, C, Zerefos, C., and Repapis C. C.: Vertical tropospheric ozone characteristics over Athens, Greece, in Proc. XX Quadrennial Ozone Symp. 2004, Kos, Greece, Zerefos C, Ed., 191–192, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalabokas, P. D., Volz-Thomas, A., Brioude, J., Thouret, V., Cammas, J.-P., and Repapis, C. C.: Vertical ozone measurements in the troposphere over the Eastern Mediterranean and comparison with Central Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 3783–3790, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-3783-2007, 2007.

  • Kalabokas, P. D., Mihalopoulos, N., Ellul, R., Kleanthous, S., and Repapis, C. C.: An investigation of the meteorological and photochemical factors influencing the background rural and marine surface ozone levels in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean, Atmos. Environ., 42, 7894–7906, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.07.009, 2008.

  • Kalabokas, P. D., Papayannis, A. D., Tsaknakis, G., and Ziomas, I.: Study on the atmospheric concentrations of primary and secondary air pollutants in the Athens basin performed by DOAS and DIAL measuring techniques, Sci. Total Environ., 414, 556–563, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.024, 2012.

  • Kalabokas, P. D., Cammas, J.-P., Thouret, V., Volz-Thomas, A., Boulanger, D., and Repapis, C. C.: Examination of the atmospheric conditions associated with high and low summer ozone levels in the lower troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10339–10352, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-10339-2013, 2013.

  • Kalabokas, P., Thouret, V., Cammas, J.-P., Volz-Thomas, A., Boulanger, D., and Repapis C. C.: The geographical distribution of meteorological parameters associated with high and low summer ozone levels in the lower troposphere and the boundary layer over the eastern Mediterranean (Cairo case), Tellus B, 67, 27853, https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusb.v67.27853, 2015.

  • Kalabokas, P., Hjorth, J., Foret, G., Dufour, G., Eremenko, M., Siour, G., Cuesta, J., and Beekmann, M.: An investigation on the origin of regional springtime ozone episodes in the western Mediterranean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3905–3928, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-3905-2017, 2017.

  • Kalabokas, P., Jensen, N. R., Roveri, M., Hjorth, J., Eremenko, M., Cuesta, J., Dufour, G., Foret, G., and Beekmann, M.: A study of the influence of tropospheric subsidence on spring and summer surface ozone concentrations at the JRC Ispra station in northern Italy, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1861–1885, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-1861-2020, 2020.

  • Kalthoff, N., Kottmeier, C., Thürauf, J., Corsmeier, U., Saїd, F., Fréjafon, E., and Perros, P. E.; Mesoscale circulation systems and ozone concentrations during ESCOMPTE: a case study from IOP 2b, Atmos. Res., 74, 355–380, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.04.006, 2005.

  • Kambezidis, H. D., Weidauer, D., Melas, D., and Ulbricht, M.: Air quality in the Athens basin during sea-breeze and non-sea-breeze days using laser-remote-sensing technique, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2173–2182, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00409-3, 1998.

  • Kanakidou, M., Mihalopoulos, N., Kindap, T., Im, U., Vrekoussis, M., Gerasopoulos, E., Dermitzaki, E., Unal, A., Koçak, M., Markakis, K., Melas, D., Kouvarakis, G., Youssef, A. F., Richter, A., Hatzianastassiou, N., Hilboll, A., Ebojie, F., Wittrock, F., von Savigny, C., Burrows, J. P., Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A., and Moubasher, H.: Megacities as hot spots of air pollution in the East Mediterranean, Atmos. Environ., 45, 1223–1235, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.11.048, 2011.

  • Kassomenos, P., Kotroni, V., and Kallos, G.: Analysis of climatological and air quality observations from Greater Athens Area, Atmos. Environ., 29B, 3671–3688, https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(94)00358-R, 1995.

  • Kentarchos, A. S., Davies T. D., and Zerefos C. S.: A low latitude stratospheric intrusion associated with a cut-off low, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 67–70, https://doi.org/10.1029/97GL03351, 1998.

  • Kirtman, B., Power, S. B., Adedoyin, J. A., Boer, G. J., Bojariu, R., Camilloni, I., Doblas-Reyes, F., Fiore, A. M., Kimoto, M., Meehl, G., Prather, M., Sarr, A., Schär, C., Sutton, R., van Oldenborgh, G. J., Vecchi, G., and Wang, H-J: Chapter 11: Near-term Climate Change: Projections and Predictability, in Climate Change 2013 – Physical Scientific Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 953–1028, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.023, 2013.

  • Kleanthous, S., Vrekoussis, M., Mihalopoulos, N., Kalabokas, P., and Lelieveld, J.: On the temporal and spatial variation of ozone in Cyprus, Sci. Total Environ., 476–477, 677–687, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.101, 2014.

  • Klemm, O., Ziomas, I. C., Balis, D., Suppan, P., Slemr, J., Romero, R., and Vyras, L. G.: A summer air-pollution study in Athens, Greece, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2071–2087, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00424-X, 1998.

  • Kopanakis, I., Glytsos, T., Kouvarakis, G., Gerasopoulos, E., Mihalopoulos, N., and Lazaridis, M.: Variability of ozone in the Eastern Mediterranean during a 7-year study, Air Qual. Atmos. Health, 9, 461–470, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11869-015-0362-3, 2015.

  • Kourtidis, K., Ziomas, I., Zerefos, C., Balis, D., Suppan, P., Vassaras, A., Kosmidis, V., and Kentrarchos, A.: On the background ozone values in Greece, in Proc. 7th European Symp. Physico-chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric Pollutants: The Oxidizing Capacity of the Troposphere, EUR 17482 EN, Venice, Italy, 456–461, 1996.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kourtidis, K., Zerefos, C., Rapsomanikis, S., Simeonov, V., Balis, D., Perros, P. E., Thomson, A. M., Witte, J., Calpini, B., Sharobiem, W. M., Papayiannis, A., Mihalopoulos, N., and Drakou, R.: Regional levels of ozone in the troposphere over eastern Mediterranean, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8140, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000140, 2002.

  • Kouvarakis, G., Tsigaridis, K., Kanakidou, M., and. Mihalopoulos, N.: Temporal variations of surface regional background ozone over Crete Island in the Southeast Mediterranean, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 4399–4407, https://doi.org/doi/10.1029/1999JD900984, 2000.

  • Kouvarakis, G., Vrekoussis, M., Mihalopoulos, N., Kourtidis, K., Rappengluck, B., Gerasopoulos, E., and Zerefos, C.: Spatial and temporal variability of tropospheric ozone (O3) in the boundary layer above the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean), J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8137, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000081, 2002.

  • Lalas, D. P., Veirs, V. R., Karras, G., and Kallos, G.: An analysis of the SO2 concentration levels in Athens, Greece, Atmos. Environ., 16, 531–544, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(82)90162-7, 1982.

  • Lalas, D. P., Asimakopoulos, D. N., Deligiorgi, D. G., and Helmis, C. G.: Sea breeze circulation and photochemical pollution in Athens, Greece, Atmos. Environ., 17, 1621–1631, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(83)90171-3, 1983.

  • Lalas, D. P., Tombrou-Tsella, M., Petrakis, M., Asimakopoulos, D. N., and Helmis, C. G.: An experimental study of the vertical distribution of ozone over Athens, Atmos. Environ., 12, 2681–2693, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(87)90200-9, 1987.

  • Lattuati M.: Impact des émissions Européennes sur le bilan d’ozone troposphérique à l’interface de L’Europe et de l’Atlantique Nord : apport de la modélisation lagrangienne et des mesures en altitude, PhD Thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lelieveld, J., Berresheim, H., Borrmann, S., Crutzen, P. J., Dentener, F. J., Fischer, H., Feichter, J., Flatau, P. J., Heland, J., Holzinger, R., Korrmann, R., Lawrence, M. G., Levin, Z., Markowicz, K. M., Mihalopoulos, N., Minikin, A., Ramanathan, V., de Reus, M., Roelofs, G. J., Scheeren, H. A., Sciare, J., Schlager, H., Schultz, M., Siegmund, P., Steil, B., Stephanou, E. G., Stier, P., Traub, M., Warneke, C., Williams, J., and Ziereis, H.: Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean, Science, 298, 794–799, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1075457, 2002.

  • Lin, M., Horowitz, L. W., Xie, Y., Paulot, F., Malyshev, S., Shevliakova, E., Finco, A., Gerosa, G., Kubistin, D., and Pilegaard, K.: Vegetation feedbacks during drought exacerbate ozone air pollution extremes in Europe, Nat. Clim. Chang., 10, 444–451, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-0743-y, 2020.

  • Linvill, D. E., Hooker, W. J., and Olson, B.: Ozone in Michigan’s environment 1876–1880, Mon. Weath. Rev., 108, 1883–1891, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010993, 1980.

  • Liu, J. J., Jones, D. B. A., Worden, J. R., Noone, D., Parrington, M., and Kar, J.: Analysis of the summertime build-up of tropospheric ozone abundances over the Middle East and North Africa as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instrument, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D05304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010993, 2009.

  • Mallet, M., Dulac, F., Formenti, P., Nabat, P., Sciare, J., Roberts, G., Pelon, J., Ancellet, G., Tanré, D., Parol, F., Denjean, C., Brogniez, G., di Sarra, A., Alados-Arboledas, L., Arndt, J., Auriol, F., Blarel, L., Bourrianne, T., Chazette, P., Chevaillier, S., Claeys, M., D’Anna, B., Derimian, Y., Desboeufs, K., Di Iorio, T., Doussin, J.-F., Durand, P., Féron, A., Freney, E., Gaimoz, C., Goloub, P., Gómez-Amo, J. L., Granados-Muñoz, M. J., Grand, N., Hamonou, E., Jankowiak, I., Jeannot, M., Léon, J.-F., Maillé, M., Mailler, S., Meloni, D., Menut, L., Momboisse, G., Nicolas, J., Podvin, T., Pont, V., Rea, G., Renard, J.-B., Roblou, L., Schepanski, K., Schwarzenboeck, A., Sellegri, K., Sicard, M., Solmon, F., Somot, S., Torres, B., Totems, J., Triquet, S., Verdier, N., Verwaerde, C., Waquet, F., Wenger, J., and Zapf, P.: Overview of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment/Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing on the Mediterranean Climate (ChArMEx/ADRIMED) summer 2013 campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 455–504, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-455-2016, 2016.

  • Mallet, M., di Sarra, A., Mailler, S., Menut, L., Kaskaoutis, D., Rowlinson, M., and Rap A.: Aerosol and tropospheric ozone direct radiative impacts, In F. Dulac, S. Sauvage, & E. Hamonou (Eds.), Atmospheric chemistry in the Mediterranean Region (Vol. 2, From air pollutant sources to impacts). Springer, 373–402, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-82385-6_19, 2022.

  • Malley, C. S., Braban C. F., and Heal M. R.: The application of hierarchical cluster analysis and non-negative matrix factorization to European atmospheric monitoring site classification, Atmos. Res., 138, 30–40, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2013.10.019, 2014.

  • Madronich, S., Flocke, S.: The role of solar radiation in atmospheric chemistry. In: Boule, P. (Ed.), The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Vol. 2, Part L Environmental Photochemistry. Springer, Heidelberg, 1–26, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-69044-3_1, 1999.

  • Mantis, H. T., Repapis, C. C., Zerefos, C. S., and Ziomas, J. C.: Assessment of the potential for photochemical air pollution in Athens: a comparison of emissions and air pollutant levels in Athens with those in Los Angeles, J. Appl. Met., 31, 1467–1476, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1992)031<1467:AOTPFP>2.0.CO;2, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mao, H., Talbot, R., Troop, D., Johnson, R., Businger, S., and Thompson, A.: Smart balloon observations over the North Atlantic: ozone data analysis and modelling, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D23S56, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006507, 2006.

  • Marenco, A., Thouret, V., Nedelec, P., Smit, H., Helten, M., Kley, D., Karcher, F., Simon, P., Law, K., Pyle, J., Poschmann, G., Von Wrede, R., Hume, C., and Cook, T.: Measurements of ozone and water vapor by Airbus in-service aircraft: The MOZAIC airborne program, An overview, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 25631–25642, https://doi.org/10.1029/98JD00977, 1998.

  • Marenco, F., Santacesaria, V., Bais A. F., Balis, D., di Sarra, A., Papayannis, A., and Zerefos C.: Optical properties of tropospheric aerosols determined by lidar and spectrophotometric measurements (Photochemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation campaign), Appl. Opt., 36, 6875-6886, https://doi.org/10.1364/ao.36.006875, 1997.

  • Mariolopoulos, E., Zerefos, C. S., Bloutsos, A., and Repapis, C.: Ozone and temperature balloon measurements during the annular solar eclipse of 29 April 1976, Proc. Acad. Athens, 51, 636–645, 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mariolopoulos, E. G., Repapis, C. C., Zerefos, C. S., Varotsos, C., Ziomas, I., and Bais, A.: A neglected long-term series of ground-level ozone, in Proc. Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, Reidel, Dordrecht, 788–790, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  • Massagué, J., Carnerero, C., Escudero, M., Baldasano, J. M., Alastuey, A., and Querol, X.: 2005–2017 ozone trends and potential benefits of local measures as deduced from air quality measurements in the north of the Barcelona metropolitan area, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7445–7465, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-7445-2019, 2019.

  • Melas, D., Ziomas, I., Klemm, O., and Zerefos, C. S.: Flow dynamics in Athens area under moderate large-scale winds, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2209–2222, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00436-6, 1998a.

  • Melas, D., Ziomas, I., Klemm, O., and Zerefos, C. S.: Anatomy of the sea-breeze circulation in Athens area under weak large-scale ambient winds, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2223–2237, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00420-2, 1998b.

  • Menut, L., Coll, I., and Cautenet, S.: Impact of meteorological data resolution on the forecasted ozone concentrations during the ESCOMPTE IOP 2a and 2b, Atmos. Res., 74, 139–159, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.04.008, 2005.

  • Michaelides, S., Karacostas, T., Sánchez, J. L., Retalis, I., Pytharoulis, A., Homar, V., Romero, R., Zanis, P., Giannakopoulos, C., Bühl, J., Ansmann, A., Merino, A., Melcón, P., Lagouvardos, K., Kotroni, V., Bruggeman, A., López-Moreno, J. I., Berthet, C., Katragkou, E., Tymvios, F., Hadjimitsis, D. G., Mamouri, R.-E., and Nisantzi, A.: Reviews and perspectives of high impact atmospheric processes in the Mediterranean, Atmos. Res., 208, 4–44, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2017.11.022, 2018.

  • Michoud, V., Sciare, J., Sauvage, S., Dusanter, S., Léonardis, T., Gros, V., Kalogridis, C., Zannoni, N., Féron, A., Petit, J.-E., Crenn, V., Baisnée, D., Sarda-Estève, R., Bonnaire, N., Marchand, N., DeWitt, H. L., Pey, J., Colomb, A., Gheusi, F., Szidat, S., Stavroulas, I., Borbon, A., and Locoge, N.: Organic carbon at a remote site of the western Mediterranean Basin: sources and chemistry during the ChArMEx SOP2 field experiment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8837–8865, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-8837-2017, 2017.

  • Millán, M. M., Artiñano, B., Alonso, L., Navazo, M., and Castro, M.: The effect of meso-scale flows on regional and long-range atmospheric transport in the Western Mediterranean area, Atmos. Environ., 25, 5/6, 949–963, https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-1686(91)90137-V, 1991.

  • Millán, M. M., Salvador, R., Mantilla, E., and Artiñano, B.: Meteorology and photochemical air pollution in southern Europe: experimental results from EC research projects, Atmos. Environ., 30, 1909–1924, https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(95)00220-0, 1996.

  • Millán, M. M., Salvador, R., Mantilla, E., and Kallos, G.: Photooxidant dynamics in the Mediterranean basin in summer: Results from European research projects, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8811–8823, https://doi.org/10.1029/96JD03610, 1997.

  • Millán, M. M., Mantilla, E., Salvador, R., Carratalá, A., Sanz, M. J., Alonso, L., Gangoiti, G., and Navazo, M.: Ozone cycles in the western Mediterranean basin: interpretation of monitoring data in complex coastal terrain, J. Appl. Meteorol., 39, 487–508, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(2000)039<0487:OCITWM>2.0.CO;2, 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  • Millán, M. M., Sanz, M. J., Salvador, R., and Mantilla, E.: Atmospheric dynamics and ozone cycles related to nitrogen deposition in the western Mediterranean, Environ. Pollut., 118, 167–186, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0269-7491(01)00311-6, 2002.

  • Millán, M. M., Estrela, M. J., Sanz, M. J., Mantilla, E., Martin, M., Pastor, F., Salvador, R., Vallejo, R., Alonso, L., Gangoiti, G., Ilardia, J. L., Navazo, M., Albizuri, A., Artinano, B., Ciccioli, P., Kallos, G., Carvalho, R. A., Andres, D., Hoff, A., Werhahn, J., Seufert, G., and Versino, B.: Climatic Feedbacks and Desertification: The Mediterranean Model, J. Climate, 18, 684–701, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-3283.1, 2005.

  • MinEnv: Atmospheric pollution in Athens, Directorate of air pollution and noise control, Rept., Ministry of the Environment and Energy, Athens, Greece (in Greek), https://ypen.gov.gr/perivallon/poiotita-tis-atmosfairas/ektheseis/ (last access 27 Sept. 2022), 2019.

  • Monks, P. S., Archibald, A. T., Colette, A., Cooper, O., Coyle, M., Derwent, R., Fowler, D., Granier, C., Law, K. S., Mills, G. E., Stevenson, D. S., Tarasova, O., Thouret, V., von Schneidemesser, E., Sommariva, R., Wild, O., and Williams, M. L.: Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to short-lived climate forcer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8889–8973, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-8889-2015, 2015.

  • Monteiro, A., Carvalho, A., Ribeiro, I., Scotto, M., Barbosa, S., Alonso, A., Baldasano, J. M., Pay, M. T., Miranda, A. I., and Borrego C.: Trends in ozone concentrations in the Iberian Peninsula by quantile regression and clustering, Atmos. Environ., 56, 184–193, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.069, 2012.

  • Nolle, M., Ellul, R., Heinrich, G., and Gusten, H.: A long-term study of background ozone concentrations in the Central Mediterranean-diurnal and seasonal variations on the island of Gozo, Atmos. Environ., 36, 1391–1402, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00505-2, 2002.

  • Paoletti, E., De Marco, A., Beddows, D. C. S., Harrison, R. M., and Manning, W. J.: Ozone levels in European and USA cities are increasing more than at rural sites, while peak values are decreasing, Environ. Poll., 192, 295–299, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.04.040, 2014.

  • Papayannis, A., Porteneuve, J., Balis, D., Zerefos, C., and Galani, E.: Design of a new DIAL system for tropospheric and lower stratospheric ozone monitoring in northern Greece, Phys. Chem. Earth, 24, 439–442, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1464-1917(99)00068-9, 1999.

  • Papayannis, A., Balis, D., Zanis, P., Galani, E., Wernli, H., Zerefos, C., Stohl, A., Eckhardt, S., and Amiridis, V.: Sampling of an STT event over the Eastern Mediterranean region by lidar and electrochemical sonde, Annal. Geophys., 23, 2039–2050, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-23-2039-2005, 2005.

  • Pausata, F. S. R., Pozzoli, L., Vignati, E., and Dentener, F. J.: North Atlantic Oscillation and tropospheric ozone variability in Europe: model analysis and measurements intercomparison, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6357–6376, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-6357-2012, 2012.

  • Pay, M. T., Gangoiti, G., Guevara, M., Napelenok, S., Querol, X., Jorba, O., and Pérez García-Pando, C.: Ozone source apportionment during peak summer events over southwestern Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5467–5494, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-5467-2019, 2019.

  • Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Pandolfi, M., Reche, C., Pérez, N., Minguillón, M. C., Moreno, T., Viana, M., Escudero, M., Orio, A., Pallarés, M., and Reina F.: 2001–2012 trends on air quality in Spain, Sci. Total Environ., 490, 957–969, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.05.074, 2014.

  • Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Orio, A., Pallares, M., Reina, F., Dieguez, J. J., Mantilla, E., Escudero, M., Alonso, L., Gangoiti, G., and Millán, M.: On the origin of the highest ozone episodes in Spain, Sci. Total Environ., 572, 379–389, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.193, 2016.

  • Querol, X., Gangoiti, G., Mantilla, E., Alastuey, A., Minguillón, M. C., Amato, F., Reche, C., Viana, M., Moreno, T., Karanasiou, A., Rivas, I., Pérez, N., Ripoll, A., Brines, M., Ealo, M., Pandolfi, M., Lee, H.-K., Eun, H.-R., Park, Y.-H., Escudero, M., Beddows, D., Harrison, R. M., Bertrand, A., Marchand, N., Lyasota, A., Codina, B., Olid, M., Udina, M., Jiménez-Esteve, B., Soler, M. R., Alonso, L., Millán, M., and Ahn, K.-H.: Phenomenology of high-ozone episodes in NE Spain, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2817–2838, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-2817-2017, 2017.

  • Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Gangoiti, G., Perez, N., Lee, H. K., Eun, H. R., Park, Y., Mantilla, E., Escudero, M., Titos, G., Alonso, L., Temime-Roussel, B., Marchand, N., Moreta, J. R., Revuelta, M. A., Salvador, P., Artíñano, B., García dos Santos, S., Anguas, M., Notario, A., Saiz-Lopez, A., Harrison, R. M., Millán, M., and Ahn, K.-H.: Phenomenology of summer ozone episodes over the Madrid Metropolitan Area, central Spain, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6511–6533, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-6511-2018, 2018.

  • Quesada-Ruiz, S., Attié, J.-L., Lahoz, W. A., Abida, R., Ricaud, P., El Amraoui, L., Zbinden, R., Piacentini, A., Joly, M., Eskes, H., Segers, A., Curier, L., de Haan, J., Kujanpää, J., Oude Nijhuis, A. C. P., Tamminen, J., Timmermans, R., and Veefkind, P.: Benefit of ozone observations from Sentinel-5P and future Sentinel-4 missions on tropospheric composition, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 131–152, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-13-131-2020, 2020.

  • Rap, A., Richards, N. A. D., Forster, P. M., Monks, S. A., Arnold, S. R., and Chipperfield, M. P.: Satellite constraint on the tropospheric ozone radiative effect, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 5074–5081, https://doi.org/10.1002/2015GL064037, 2015.

  • Ravetta, F., Ancellet, G., Colette, A., and Schlager, H.: Long-range transport and tropospheric ozone variability in the western Mediterranean region during the Intercontinental Transport of Ozone and Precursors (ITOP-2004) campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10S46, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007724, 2007.

  • Real, E., Law, K. S., Schlager, H., Roiger, A., Huntrieser, H., Methven, J., Cain, M., Holloway, J., Neuman, J. A., Ryerson, T., Flocke, F., de Gouw, J., Atlas, E., Donnelly, S., and Parrish, D.: Lagrangian analysis of low altitude anthropogenic plume processing across the North Atlantic, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7737–7754, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-7737-2008, 2008.

  • Reche, C., Moreno, T., Amato, F., Pandolfi, M., Pérez, J., de la Paz, D., Díaz, E., Gómez-Moreno, F. J., Pujadas, M., Artíñano, B., Reina, F., Orio, A., Pallarés, M., Escudero, M., Tapia, O., Crespo, E., Vargas, R., Alastuey, A., and Querol, X.: Spatio-temporal patterns of high summer ozone events in the Madrid Basin, Central Spain, Atmos. Environ., 185, 207–220, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.05.002, 2018.

  • Ricaud, P., Sič, B., El Amraoui, L., Attié, J.-L., Zbinden, R., Huszar, P., Szopa, S., Parmentier, J., Jaidan, N., Michou, M., Abida, R., Carminati, F., Hauglustaine, D., August, T., Warner, J., Imasu, R., Saitoh, N., and Peuch, V.-H.: Impact of the Asian monsoon anticyclone on the variability of mid-to-upper tropospheric methane above the Mediterranean Basin, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11427–11446, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-11427-2014, 2014.

  • Ricaud, P., Zbinden, R., Catoire, V., Brocchi, V., Dulac, F., Hamonou, E., Canonici, J.C., El Amraoui, L., Massart, S., Piguet, B., and Dayan, U.: The GLAM airborne campaign across the Mediterranean basin, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 99, 361–380, https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0226.1, 2018.

  • Richards, N. A. D., Arnold, S. R., Chipperfield, M. P., Miles, G., Rap, A., Siddans, R., Monks, S. A., and Hollaway, M. J.: The Mediterranean summertime ozone maximum: global emission sensitivities and radiative impacts, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2331–2345, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-2331-2013, 2013.

  • Roelofs, G. J., Scheeren, H. A., Heland, J., Ziereis, H., and Lelieveld, J.: A model study of ozone in the eastern Mediterranean free troposphere during MINOS (August 2001), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1199–1210, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-1199-2003, 2003.

  • Safieddine, S., Boynard, A., Coheur, P.-F., Hurtmans, D., Pfister, G., Quennehen, B., Thomas, J. L., Raut, J.-C., Law, K. S., Klimont, Z., Hadji-Lazaro, J., George, M., and Clerbaux, C.: Summertime tropospheric ozone assessment over the Mediterranean region using the thermal infrared IASI/MetOp sounder and the WRF-Chem model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10119–10131, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-10119-2014, 2014.

  • Saïd F., U. Corsmeier, N. Kalthoff, C. Kottmeier, M. Lothon, A. Wieser, T. Hofherr, P. Perros, ESCOMPTE experiment: intercomparison of four aircraft dynamical, thermodynamical, radiation and chemical measurements, Atmos. Res., 74, 217–252, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2004.06.012, 2005.

  • Saiz-Lopez, A., Borge, R., Notario, A., Adame, J. A., De la Paz, D., Querol, X., Artíñano, B., Gomez-Moreno, F. J., and Cuevas, C. A.: Unexpected increase in the oxidation capacity of the urban atmosphere of Madrid, Spain, Sci. Rep, 7, 45956, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep45956, 2017.

  • Saliba, M., Ellul, R., Camilleri, L., and Güsten H.: A 10-year study of background surface ozone concentrations on the island of Gozo in the Central Mediterranean, J. Atmos. Chem., 60, 117–135, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-008-9112-3, 2008.

  • Salvador R., Millán, M. M., and Calbo J.: Horizontal grid size selection and its influence on mesoscale model simulations, J. Appl. Meteorol., 38, 1311–1329, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<1311:HGSSAI>2.0.CO;2, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  • Scheeren, H. A., Lelieveld, J., Roelofs, G. J., Williams, J., Fischer, H., de Reus, M., de Gouw, J. A., Warneke, C., Holzinger, R., Schlager, H., Klüpfel, T., Bolder, M., van der Veen, C., and Lawrence, M.: The impact of monsoon outflow from India and Southeast Asia in the upper troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 1589–1608, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-3-1589-2003, 2003.

  • Schmidt, H., Derognat, C., Vautard, R., and Beekmann, M.: A comparison of simulated and observed ozone mixing ratios, for the summer of 1998 in Western Europe, Atmos. Environ., 35, 6277–6297, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00451-4, 2001.

  • Schürmann, G. J., Algieri, A., Hedgecock, I. M., Manna, G., Pirrone, N., and Sprovieri, F.: Modelling local and synoptic scale influences on ozone concentrations in a topographically complex region of Southern Italy, Atmos. Environ., 43, 4424–4434, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2009.06.017, 2009.

  • Sellitto, P., Dufour, G., Eremenko, M., Cuesta, J., Dauphin, P., Forêt, G., Gaubert, B., Beekmann, M., Peuch, V.-H., and Flaud, J.-M.: Analysis of the potential of one possible instrumental configuration of the next generation of IASI instruments to monitor lower tropospheric ozone, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 621–635, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-621-2013, 2013.

  • Sicard, P., De Marco, A., Troussier, F., Renou, C., Vas, N., and Paoletti, E.: Decrease in surface ozone concentrations at Mediterranean remote sites and increase in the cities, Atmos. Environ., 79, 705–715, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.07.042, 2013.

  • Sinha, V., Williams, J., Diesch, J. M., Drewnick, F., Martinez, M., Harder, H., Regelin, E., Kubistin, D., Bozem, H., Hosaynali-Beygi, Z., Fischer, H., Andrés-Hernández, M. D., Kartal, D., Adame, J. A., and Lelieveld, J.: Constraints on instantaneous ozone production rates and regimes during DOMINO derived using in-situ OH reactivity measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 7269–7283, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-7269-2012, 2012.

  • Sprenger, M., and Wernli, H.: A northern hemispheric climatology of cross-tropopause exchange for the ERA15 time period (1979–1993), J. Geophys. Res., 108, 8521, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002636, 2003.

  • Suppan, P., Fabian, P., Vyras, L., and Gryning, S. E.: Ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate mixing ratios during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign in Athens, Greece, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2089–2102, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00421-4, 1998.

  • Svensson, G.: Model simulations of the air quality in Athens, Greece, during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2239–2268, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00427-5, 1998.

  • Svensson, G., and Klemm, O.: Aircraft measurements and model simulations of the air quality in Athens, Greece, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2269–2289, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00428-7, 1998.

  • Tarasick, D., Galbally, I. E., Cooper, O. R., Schultz, M. G., Ancellet, G., Leblanc, T., Wallington, T. J., Ziemke, J., Liu, X., Steinbacher, M., Staehelin, J., Vigouroux, C., Hannigan, J. W., García, O., Foret, G., Zanis, P., Weatherhead, E., Petropavlovskikh, I., Worden, H., Osman, M., Liu, J., Chang, K.-L., Gaudel, A., Lin, M., Granados-Muñoz, M., Thompson, A. M., Oltmans, S. J., Cuesta, J., Dufour, G., Thouret, V., Hassler, B., Trickl, T., and Neu, J. L.: Tropospheric ozone assessment report: Tropospheric ozone from 1877 to 2016, observed levels, trends and uncertainties, Elem. Sci. Anth., 7, 39, https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.376, 2019.

  • Tombrou, M., Bossioli, E., Kalogiros, J., Allan, J. D., Bacak, A., Biskos, G., Coe, H., Dandou, A., Kouvarakis, G., Mihalopoulos, N., Percival, C. J., Protonotariou, A. P., and Szabó-Takács, B.: Physical and chemical processes of air masses in the Aegean Sea during Etesians: Aegean-GAME airborne campaign, Sci. Total Environ., 506–507, 201–216, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.10.098, 2015.

  • Tsaknakis, G.: Study and development of the LIDAR-DIAL pulse system: application to the measurement of the vertical distribution of tropospheric ozone in the Athens Basin (in Greek), Ph. D. Thesis, National Technical University of Athens, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tyrlis, E., Škerlak, B., Sprenger, M., Wernli, H., Zittis, G., and Lelieveld, J.: On the linkage between the Asian summer monsoon and tropopause fold activity over the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 3202–3221, https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JD021113, 2014.

  • Valverde, V., Pay, M. T., and Baldasano, J. M.: Ozone attributed to Madrid and Barcelona on-road transport emissions: Characterization of plume dynamics over the Iberian Peninsula, Sci. Total Environ., 543, 670–682, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.070, 2016.

  • Varotsos, C., and Cartalis, C.: Re-evaluation of surface ozone over Athens, Greece, for the period 1901–1940, Atmos. Res., 26, 303–310, https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-8095(91)90024-Q, 1991.

  • Varotsos, C., Kalabokas, P., and Chronopoulos, G.: Atmospheric ozone concentration at Athens, Greece. Part II: Vertical ozone distribution in the troposphere, Atmos. Res., 30, 151–155, https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-8095(93)90046-Q, 1993.

  • Varotsos, C., Kalabokas, P., and Chronopoulos, G.: Association of the laminated vertical ozone structure with the lower-stratospheric circulation, J. Appl. Meteorol., 33, 473–476, https://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0450(1994)033%3C0473%3AAOTLVO%3E2.0.CO%3B2, 1994.

  • Velchev, K., Cavalli, F., Hjorth, J., Marmer, E., Vignati, E., Dentener, F., and Raes, F.: Ozone over the Western Mediterranean Sea – results from two years of shipborne measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 675–688, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-675-2011, 2011.

  • Viras, L. G. L.: Comparison of ozone levels between working days and weekends in Athens, Greece, Environ. Monitor. Assess., 80, 301–314, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021176421483, 2002.

  • Worden, J., Jones, D. B. A., Liu, J., Parrington, M., Bowman, K., Stajner, I., Beer, R., Jiang J., Thouret, V., Kulawik, S., Li, J.-L. F., Verma, S., and Worden, H.: Observed vertical distribution of tropospheric ozone during the Asian summertime monsoon, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D13304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010560, 2009.

  • Young, P. J., Archibald, A. T., Bowman, K. W., Lamarque, J.-F., Naik, V., Stevenson, D. S., Tilmes, S., Voulgarakis, A., Wild, O., Bergmann, D., Cameron-Smith, P., Cionni, I., Collins, W. J., Dalsøren, S. B., Doherty, R. M., Eyring, V., Faluvegi, G., Horowitz, L. W., Josse, B., Lee, Y. H., MacKenzie, I. A., Nagashima, T., Plummer, D. A., Righi, M., Rumbold, S. T., Skeie, R. B., Shindell, D. T., Strode, S. A., Sudo, K., Szopa, S., and Zeng, G.: Pre-industrial to end 21st century projections of tropospheric ozone from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2063–2090, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-2063-2013, 2013.

  • Zanis, P., Kourtidis, K., Rappenglueck, B., Zerefos, C., Melas, D., Balis, D., Schmitt, R., Rapsomanikis, S., and Fabian, P.: A case study on the possible link between surface ozone photochemistry and total ozone column during the PAUR II experiment at Crete: Comparison of observations with box model calculations, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8136, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000137, 2002.

  • Zanis, P., Hadjinicolaou, P., Pozzer, A., Tyrlis, E., Dafka, S., Mihalopoulos, N., and Lelieveld, J.: Summertime free-tropospheric ozone pool over the eastern Mediterranean/Middle East, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 115–132, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-115-2014, 2014.

  • Zbinden, R. M., Thouret, V., Ricaud, P., Carminati, F., Cammas, J.-P., and Nédélec, P.: Climatology of pure Tropospheric profiles and column contents of ozone and carbon monoxide using MOZAIC in the mid-northern latitudes (24° N to 50° N) from 1994 to 2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12363–12388, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-12363-2013, 2013.

  • Zerefos, C. S., Ziomas, I. C., Bais, A. C., Amanatidis, G. T., and Kelessis, A. G.: Chemical oxidants in air of Northern Greece in relation to meteorological and solar flux conditions, Toxicol. Environ. Chem., 20–21, 3–9, https://doi.org/10.1080/02772248909357353, 1989a.

  • Zerefos, C., Ziomas, I., Bais, A., Mantis, H., Repapis, C., Amanatidis, G., Paliatsos, A., and Roemer M.: Evolution of air pollution in the Attica basin (in Greek), Information Bulletin of the Technical Chamber of Greece, 1598, 37–97, 1989b.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zerefos, C. S., Kourtidis, K. A., Melas, D., Balis, D., Zanis, P., Katsaros, L., Mantis, H. T., Repapis, C., Isaksen, I., Sundet, J., Herman, J., Bhartia, P. K., and Calpini, B.: Photo-chemical Activity and Solar Ultraviolet Radiation (PAUR) Modulation factors: An overview of the project, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8134, https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD000134, 2002.

  • ZeroCO2: Zero CO2 hydrogen yacht, Fuel Cells Bull., 2009, 5, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1464-2859(09)70246-9, 2009.

  • Ziemke, J. R., Oman, L. D., Strode, S. A., Douglass, A. R., Olsen, M. A., McPeters, R. D., Bhartia, P. K., Froidevaux, L., Labow, G. J., Witte, J. C., Thompson, A. M., Haffner, D. P., Kramarova, N. A., Frith, S. M., Huang, L.-K., Jaross, G. R., Seftor, C. J., Deland, M. T., and Taylor, S. L.: Trends in global tropospheric ozone inferred from a composite record of TOMS/OMI/MLS/OMPS satellite measurements and the MERRA-2 GMI simulation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3257–3269, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-3257-2019, 2019.

  • Ziomas, I., Zerefos, C. S., Bais, A., Metaxas, D., and Tautorat, U.: On the strength of the ozone sink at the ground, Arch. Met. Geoph. Biocl., Ser. B, 33, 229–236, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02275096, 1983.

  • Ziomas, I. C., Zerefos, C. S., Bais, A. F., Progiou, A. G., Amanatidis, G. T., and Kelessis, A. G.: Significant increasing trends in surface ozone in Greece, Environ. Technol. Lett., 10, 1071–1082, https://doi.org/10.1080/09593338909384828, 1989.

  • Ziomas, I.: The Mediterranean campaign of photochemical tracers-transport and chemical evolution (MEDCAPHOT-TRACE): an outline, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2045–2053, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00413-5, 1998.

  • Ziomas, I., Tzoumaka, P., Balis, D., Melas, D., Zerefos, C., and Klemm, O.: Ozone episodes in Athens, Greece. A modelling approach using data from the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE, Atmos. Environ., 32, 2313–2321, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00414-7, 1998.

Download references

Acknowledgments

We thank Pierre Kermen, sustainable development project manager at the Joseph Fourier University of Grenoble (France), captain of the sailboat Zéro CO2, and coordinator of the operational mission, ensuring data collection, navigation logistics, and crew responsibility. Many thanks are also due to CEA LITEN, owner of the Zéro CO2, for making the boat available, particularly to Didier Bouix, engineer of the Energy Observer project at CEA-LITEN, responsible for the operation of the fuel cell installed on board.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pavlos Kalabokas .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Kalabokas, P. et al. (2023). Ozone in the Mediterranean Atmosphere. In: Dulac, F., Sauvage, S., Hamonou, E. (eds) Atmospheric Chemistry in the Mediterranean Region. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-12741-0_13

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics