Skip to main content

Semantic Annotation of Parliamentary Debates and Legislative Intelligence Enhancing Citizen Experience

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective (EGOVIS 2022)

Abstract

The concept of “Legislative Intelligence” (LegisIntel) refers to Artificial Intelligence (AI) and semantic analytics tools implemented in parliaments to enhance citizen experience in monitoring complex interrelations among various contents of parliamentary proceedings. The integration of a suite of digital solutions can build upon the core functionality of Semantic Annotation of Parliamentary Debates. Using well-established Natural Language Processing (NLP) technologies, linked to ontologies and Knowledge Graphs (KG), it can help identify the concepts and entities throughout texts, and index sentences and summaries as per a citizen’s customized knowledge base. These annotations can then be leveraged to recommend relevant text excerpts end-users could build upon, within teams if they chose to do so, and possibly compose and customize legislative critiques and recommendations thoroughly tested for coherence, accuracy, and evidence. The present study proposes an international open-source initiative among parliaments to ensure the launch and viability of a suite of LegisIntel solutions. It reports on the completed initial phase of this initiative, aiming to prepare discussions in launching an international consultation among peers. The goals of this phase are to document the core functionality of LegisIntel solutions and formulate a proposed architecture that may serve to generate ideas from various developer communities. The Action Design Research (ADR) methodology is used in this process, with results focused on system artefacts such as an interface mockup, a functional design, and a model of infrastructure components. The conclusion addresses risks and outlines the next steps of this initiative.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 44.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 59.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Phan, T.T., Lam, H.-P., Hashmi, M., Choi, Y.: Towards construction of legal ontology for korean legislation. In: Aveiro, D., Dietz, J., Filipe, J. (eds.) IC3K - Proc. Int. Jt. Conf. Knowl. Discov., Knowl. Eng. Knowl. Manag., pp. 86–97. SciTePress (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Mockus, M., Palmirani, M.: Legal ontology for open government data mashups. In: Edelmann, N., Parycek, P. (eds.) Proc. Int. Conf. E-Democr. Open Govern., CeDEM, pp. 113–124. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (2017). https://doi.org/10.1109/CeDEM.2017.25

  3. Hasan, M.M., Anagnostopoulos, D., Kousiouris, G., Stamati, T., Loucopoulos, P., Nikolaidou, M.: An ontology based framework for e-government regulatory requirements compliance. Intl. J. E Serv. Mob. Appl. 11, 22–42 (2019). https://doi.org/10.4018/IJESMA.2019040102

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Lamharhar, H., Chiadmi, D., Benhlima, L.: Ontology-based knowledge representation for e-Government domain. In: Steinbauer M., Indrawan-Santiago M., Anderst-Kotsis G., Khalil I. (eds.) Int. Conf. Inf. Integr. Web-Based Appl. Serv., iiWAS - Proc. Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. (2015). https://doi.org/10.1145/2837185.2837203

  5. Nečaský, M., Knap, T., Klímek, J., Holubová, I., Vidová-Hladká, B.: Linked open data for legislative domain - ontology and experimental data. In: Abramowicz, W. (ed.) BIS 2013. LNBIP, vol. 160, pp. 172–183. Springer, Heidelberg (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-41687-3_17

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  6. Fonou Dombeu, J.V., Huisman, M.: Semantic-driven e-government: application of uschold and king ontology building methodology for semantic ontology models development. Int. J. Web Semantic Technol. 2, 111–120 (2011). https://doi.org/10.5121/ijwest.2011.2401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Loukis, E., Xenakis, A.L.: A methodology for ontology-based knowledge-level interoperability among parliaments. In: Amer. Conf. Inf. Sys., AMCIS, pp. 5112–5122. San Francisco, CA (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Agnoloni, T., Bacci, L., Francesconi, E.: Ontology based legislative drafting: design and implementation of a multilingual knowledge resource. In: Gangemi, A., Euzenat, J. (eds.) EKAW 2008. LNCS (LNAI), vol. 5268, pp. 364–373. Springer, Heidelberg (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-87696-0_31

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  9. Rafail, P., Efthimios, T.: Knowledge graphs for public service description: τhe case of getting a passport in Greece. In: European, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems, pp. 270–286. Springer (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Zittel, T., Nyhuis, D., Baumann, M.: Geographic representation in party-dominated legislatures: a quantitative text analysis of parliamentary questions in the german bundestag. Legis. Stud. Q. 44, 681–711 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1111/lsq.12238

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Eide, S.R.: The swedish poligraph: A semantic graph for argument mining of Swedish parliamentary data. In: ACL - Workshop Argument Min., ArgMining - Proc. Workshop, pp. 52–57. Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Mendonça, I., Trouve, A., Fukuda, A.: Exploring the importance of negative links through the european parliament social graph. In: Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on E-Society, E-Education and E-Technology, pp. 1–7. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA (2017). https://doi.org/10.1145/3157737.3157744

  13. Jakubíček, M., Kovář, V.: Czechparl: Corpus of stenographic protocols from Czech parliament. In: RASLAN - Recent Advances Slavonic Nat. Lang. Proc., 4th Workshop Recent Advances Slavonic Nat. Lang. Proc., Proc., pp. 41–46. Masaryk University, Karlova, Studanka (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Xing, Z., Hillygus, S., Carin, L.: Evaluating U.S. Electoral representation with a joint statistical model of congressional roll-calls, legislative text, and voter registration data. In: Proc. ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. Knowl. Discov. Data Min., pp. 1205–1214. Association for Computing Machinery (2017). https://doi.org/10.1145/3097983.3098151

  15. Smith, S., Baek, J.Y.C., Kang, Z., Song, D., Ghaoui, L.E., Frank, M.: Predicting congressional votes based on campaign finance data. In: Proc. - Int. Conf. Mach. Learn. Appl., ICMLA, pp. 640–645. Boca Raton, FL (2012). https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMLA.2012.119

  16. Maynard, S.: Automatic semantic annotation for the easification of action rule legislative sentences for specialist readers. In: Ashley, K.D., et al. (eds.) CEUR Workshop Proc., pp. 36–47. CEUR-WS (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Quijano-Sánchez, L., Cantador, I.: Semantic annotation and retrieval of parliamentary content: A case study on the Spanish congress of deputies. In: Cantador, I., Chevalier, M., Melucci, M., Mothe, J. (eds.) CEUR Workshop Proc. CEUR-WS (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Ruprechter, T., Khosmood, F., Kuboi, T., Dekhtyar, A., Gütl, C.: Gaining efficiency in human assisted transcription and speech annotation in legislative proceedings. In: Hinnant, C.C., Zuiderwijk, A. (eds.) ACM Int. Conf. Proc. Ser. Association for Computing Machinery (2018). https://doi.org/10.1145/3209281.3209410

  19. De Campos, L.M., Fernández-Luna, J.M., Huete, J.F., Martín-Dancausa, C.J.: An integrated system for accessing the digital library of the parliament of Andalusia: Segmentation, annotation and retrieval of transcriptions and videos. In: Proc. Int. Workshop Pattern Recogn. Inf. Syst. - PRIS; In Conjunction ICEIS, pp. 38–47. Barcelona (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Andrushchenko, M., et al.: Using parsed and annotated corpora to analyze parliamentarians’ talk in Finland. J. Assoc. Soc. Inf. Sci. Technol. 73, 288–302 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.24500

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Almeida, P., Marques-Pita, M., Gonçalves-Sá, J.: PTPARL-D: an annotated corpus of forty-four years of Portuguese parliamentary debates. Corpora. 16, 337–348 (2021). https://doi.org/10.3366/cor.2021.0226

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Koeva, S., Obreshkov, N., Yalamov, M.: Natural language processing pipeline to annotate bulgarian legislative data. In: Calzolari, N., et al. (eds.) LREC - Int. Conf. Lang. Resour. Eval., Conf. Proc., pp. 6988–6994. European Language Resources Association (ELRA) (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Lapponi, E., Søyland, M.G., Velldal, E., Oepen, S.: The talk of Norway: a richly annotated corpus of the Norwegian parliament, 1998–2016. Lang. Resour. Eval. 52(3), 873–893 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-018-9411-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Höfler, S., Sugisaki, K.: Constructing and exploiting an automatically annotated resource of legislative texts. In: Calzolari, N., et al. (eds.) Int. Conf. Lang. Resourc. and Eval. – LREC, pp. 175–180. European Language Resources Association (ELRA) (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  25. Sinikallio, L., et al.: Plenary debates of the parliament of Finland as linked open data and in parla-CLARIN markup. In: Gromann, D., et al. (eds.) OpenAccess Ser. Informatics. Schloss Dagstuhl- Leibniz-Zentrum fur Informatik GmbH, Dagstuhl Publishing (2021). https://doi.org/10.4230/OASIcs.LDK.2021.8

  26. Erjavec, T.: The ParlaMint corpora of parliamentary proceedings. Lang. Resour. Eval. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-021-09574-0

  27. Cifuentes-Silva, F., Rivera-Polo, F., Labra-Gayo, J.E., Astudillo, H.: Describing the nature of legislation through roll call voting in the chilean national congress, a linked dataset description. Semantic web. (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Cifuentes-Silva, F., Fernández-Álvarez, D., Labra-Gayo, J.E.: National budget as linked open data: new tools for supporting the sustainability of public finances. Sustainability 12, 4551 (2020). https://doi.org/10.3390/su12114551

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Cifuentes-Silva, F., Labra Gayo, J.E.: Legislative document content extraction based on semantic web technologies. In: Hitzler, P., et al. (eds.) ESWC 2019. LNCS, vol. 11503, pp. 558–573. Springer, Cham (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-21348-0_36

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  30. Sánchez-Nielsen, E., Chávez-Gutiérrez, F., Lorenzo-Navarro, J.: A semantic parliamentary multimedia approach for retrieval of video clips with content understanding. Multimedia Syst. 25(4), 337–354 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00530-019-00610-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Coole, M., Rayson, P., Mariani, J.: Unfinished Business: Construction and Maintenance of a Semantically Tagged Historical Parliamentary Corpus, UK Hansard from 1803 to the present day. In: Proceedings of the Second ParlaCLARIN Workshop, pp. 23–27. European Language Resources Association, Marseille, France (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  32. Nanni, F., Menini, S., Tonelli, S., Ponzetto, S.P.: Semantifying the UK Hansard (1918–2018). In: Proceedings of the 18th Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 412–413. IEEE Press, Champaign, Illinois (2019). https://doi.org/10.1109/JCDL.2019.00095

  33. Abercrombie, G., Batista-Navarro, R.: Semantic change in the language of UK parliamentary debates. In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Computational Approaches to Historical Language Change, pp. 210–215. Association for Computational Linguistics, Florence, Italy (2019). https://doi.org/10.18653/v1/W19-4726

  34. Koit, M.: How are the members of a parliament arguing? analysis of an argument corpus. In: Rocha, A.P., Steels, L., van den Herik, J. (eds.) ICAART - Proc. Int. Conf. Agents Artif. Intell., pp. 1046–1053. SciTePress (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  35. Koit, M.: Annotating arguments in a parliamentary corpus: an experience. In: Aveiro, D., Dietz, J., Filipe, J. (eds.) IC3K - Proc. Int. Jt. Conf. Knowl. Discov., Knowl. Eng. Knowl. Manag., pp. 213–218. SciTePress (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  36. Michon, S., Wiest, E.: A database about the members of European parliament: contributions and limitations of automated data collection in the study of European political elites. Bull. Sociol. Methodol. 152, 125–141 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1177/07591063211040235

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Däubler, T., Chiru, M., Hermansen, S.S.L.: Introducing COMEPELDA: comprehensive European parliament electoral data covering rules, parties and candidates. Eur. Union Polit. 23, 351–371 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1177/14651165211053439

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Pérez, M.C.: The group in the self a corpus-assisted discourse studies approach to personal and group communication at the European parliament. Pragmatics 29, 357–383 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1353/gpr.2019.0000

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Plevoets, K., Defrancq, B.: The cognitive load of interpreters in the European parliament A corpus-based study of predictors for the disfluency uh(m). Interpreting 20, 1–28 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1075/intp.00001.ple

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Defrancq, B.: The European parliament as a discourse community: its role in comparable analyses of data drawn from parallel interpreting corpora. Interpreters Newsl. 23, 115–132 (2018). https://doi.org/10.13137/2421-714X/22401

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Calzada-Pérez, M.: Researching the european parliament with corpus-assisted discourse studies from the micro- and macro-levels of text to the macro-context. Rev. Esp. Ling. Apli. 30, 465–490 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1075/resla.00003.cal

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Calzada Pérez, M.: What is kept and what is lost without translation? a corpus-assisted discourse study of the European Parliament’s original and translated English. Perspect. Stud. Transl. 26, 277–291 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1080/0907676X.2017.1359325

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Veroz, M.A.: Translation in the European parliament: the study of the ideational function in technical texts (EN/FR/ES). Meta 62, 19–44 (2017). https://doi.org/10.7202/1040465ar

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Van Aggelen, A., Hollink, L., Kemman, M., Kleppe, M., Beunders, H.: The debates of the European parliament as linked open data. Semantic Web. 8, 271–281 (2017). https://doi.org/10.3233/SW-160227

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Sein, M.K., Henfridsson, O., Purao, S., Rossi, M., Lindgren, R.: Action design research. MIS Q. 35, 37–56 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Mullarkey, M.T., Hevner, A.R.: An elaborated action design research process model. Eur. J. Inf. Syst. 28, 6–20 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1080/0960085X.2018.1451811

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Gill, A.Q., Chew, E.: Configuration information system architecture: insights from applied action design research. Inform. Manag. 56, 507–525 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2018.09.011

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Collatto, D.C., Dresch, A., Lacerda, D.P., Bentz, I.G.: Is action design research indeed necessary? analysis and synergies between action research and design science research. Syst. Pract. Action Res. 31(3), 239–267 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11213-017-9424-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Devlin, J., Chang, M.-W., Lee, K., Toutanova, K.: BERT: Pre-training of deep bidirectional transformers for language understanding. In: NAACL HLT - Conf. N. Am. Chapter Assoc. Comput. Linguistics: Hum. Lang. Technol. - Proc. Conf., pp. 4171–4186. Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  50. Zhao, Y., Zhang, A., Feng, H., Li, Q., Gallinari, P., Ren, F.: Knowledge graph entity typing via learning connecting embeddings. Knowl. Based Syst. 196, 105808 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knosys.2020.105808

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Palumbo, E., Monti, D., Rizzo, G., Troncy, R., Baralis, E.: entity2rec: property-specific knowledge graph embeddings for item recommendation. Expert Sys. Appl. 151, 113235 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2020.113235

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Leblay, J., Chekol, M.W., Liu, X.: Towards temporal knowledge graph embeddings with arbitrary time precision. In: Int. Conf. Inf. Knowledge Manage., pp. 685–694. Association for Computing Machinery (2020). https://doi.org/10.1145/3340531.3412028

  53. Assi, A., Mcheick, H., Dhifli, W.: Data linking over RDF knowledge graphs: a survey. Concurrency Comput. 32, e5746 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/cpe.5746

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Stéphane Gagnon .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Gagnon, S., Azzi, S. (2022). Semantic Annotation of Parliamentary Debates and Legislative Intelligence Enhancing Citizen Experience. In: Kő, A., Francesconi, E., Kotsis, G., Tjoa, A.M., Khalil, I. (eds) Electronic Government and the Information Systems Perspective. EGOVIS 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 13429. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-12673-4_5

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-12673-4_5

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-12672-7

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-12673-4

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics