In the following review, we summarize findings from two decades of demographic and population health research investigating racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in childhood and adult obesity in the United States (U.S.). We document current racial/ethnic disparities in the U.S. obesity prevalence among adults and children and discuss important theoretical models that can help explain why these disparities are evident. We then focus attention on some of the primary contributions scholars have made to knowledge about racial/ethnic disparities in obesity. These contributions include a large body of research on the risk of obesity among the Hispanic population, including what is known about immigrants and their children; scholarship on Black women’s particularly high obesity risk; research indicating the different risk of obesity among disparate Asian American subgroups; and evidence about how racial/ethnic obesity disparities appear to be shaping racial/ethnic disparities in longevity and mortality. We conclude this chapter with a discussion of promising areas for future research including a discussion of challenges that much be confronted in order to continue advancing scholarship on racial/ethnic disparities in obesity.
- Adult obesity
- Childhood obesity
- Obesity trends
- Racial/ethnic disparities
- Immigrant health
- Obesogenic environments
- Default American lifestyle
- Hispanic health paradox
- Obesity & mortality
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout
Purchases are for personal use onlyLearn about institutional subscriptions
We recognize that Puerto Ricans born in Puerto Rico are U.S. nationals and U.S. citizens but use the term “immigrant” to distinguish those born in the mainland U.S. and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico.
Abraído-Lanza, A. F., Armbrister, A. N., Flórez, K. R., & Aguirre, A. N. (2006). Toward a theory-driven model of acculturation in public health research. American Journal of Public Health, 96(8), 1342–1346.
Akresh, I. R. (2008). Overweight and obesity among foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanics. Biodemography and Social Biology, 54(2), 183–199.
Al Snih, S., Ottenbacher, K. J., Markides, K. S., Kuo, Y.-F., Eschbach, K., & Goodwin, J. S. (2007). The effect of obesity on disability vs mortality in older Americans. Archives of Internal Medicine, 167(8), 774–780.
Albrecht, S. S., & Gordon-Larsen, P. (2013). Ethnic differences in body mass index trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: A focus on Hispanic and Asian subgroups in the United States. PLoS One, 8(9), e72983.
Altman, C. E., & Bachmeier, J. D. (2021). The weight of being unauthorized? Legal status variation in the association between us exposure and obesity among Hispanic immigrants in Los Angeles. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.
Antecol, H., & Bedard, K. (2006). Unhealthy assimilation: Why do immigrants converge to American health status levels?*. Demography, 43(2), 337–360.
Arias, E., Betzaida, T.-V., Ahmad, F., & Kochanek, K. (2021). Provisional life expectancy estimates for 2020. National Center for Health Statistics.
Baker, E. H., Rendall, M. S., & Weden, M. M. (2015). Epidemiological paradox or immigrant vulnerability? Obesity among young children of immigrants. Demography, 52(4), 1295–1320.
Balistreri, K. S., & Van Hook, J. (2011). Trajectories of overweight among U.S school children: A focus on social and economic characteristics. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(5), 610–619.
Bates, L. M., Acevedo-Garcia, D., Alegría, M., & Krieger, N. (2008). Immigration and generational trends in body mass index and obesity in the United States: Results of the National Latino and Asian American survey, 2002–2003. American Journal of Public Health, 98(1), 70–77.
Batis, C., Hernandez-Barrera, L., Barquera, S., Rivera, J. A., & Popkin, B. M. (2011). Food acculturation drives dietary differences among Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and non-hispanic whites123. The Journal of Nutrition, 141(10), 1898–1906.
Bean, F. D., Brown, S. K., Bachmeier, J. D., Brown, S., & Bachmeier, J. (2015). Parents without papers: The progress and pitfalls of Mexican American integration. Russell Sage Foundation.
Bhutani, S., vanDellen, M. R., & Cooper, J. A. (2021). Longitudinal weight gain and related risk behaviors during the covid-19 pandemic in adults in the us. Nutrients, 13(2), 671.
Bleich, S. N., Thorpe, R. J., Sharif-Harris, H., Fesahazion, R., & LaVeist, T. A. (2010). Social context explains race disparities in obesity among women. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 64(5), 465–469.
Boggs, D. A., Rosenberg, L., Cozier, Y. C., Wise, L. A., Coogan, P. F., Ruiz-Narvaez, E. A., & Palmer, J. R. (2011). General and abdominal obesity and risk of death among black women. The New England Journal of Medicine, 365(10), 901–908.
Brownson, R. C., Boehmer, T. K., & Luke, D. A. (2005). Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: What are the contributors? Annual Review of Public Health, 26(1), 421–443.
Burkhauser, R. V., & Cawley, J. (2008). Beyond BMI: The value of more accurate measures of fatness and obesity in social science research. Journal of Health Economics, 27(2), 519–529.
Buttenheim, A. M., Pebley, A. R., Hsih, K., Chung, C. Y., & Goldman, N. (2013). The shape of things to come? Obesity prevalence among foreign-born vs. us-born Mexican youth in California. Social Science & Medicine, 78, 1–8.
Censin, J. C., Peters, S. A. E., Bovijn, J., Ferreira, T., Pulit, S. L., Mägi, R., Mahajan, A., Holmes, M. V., & Lindgren, C. M. (2019). Causal relationships between obesity and the leading causes of death in women and men. PLoS Genetics, 15(10), e1008405.
Chang, V. W., Hillier, A. E., & Mehta, N. K. (2009). Neighborhood racial isolation, disorder and obesity. Social Forces, 87(4), 2063–2092.
Cheah, C. S. L., & Van Hook, J. (2012). Chinese and Korean immigrants’ early life deprivation: An important factor for child feeding practices and Children’s body weight in the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 74(5), 744–752.
Cook, W. K., Tseng, W., Tam, C., John, I., & Lui, C. (2017). Ethnic-group socioeconomic status as an indicator of community-level disadvantage: A study of overweight/obesity in Asian American adolescents. Social Science & Medicine, 184, 15–22.
Cozier, Y. C., Jeffrey, Y., Coogan, P. F., Bethea, T. N., Rosenberg, L., & Palmer, J. R. (2014). Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the black Women’s health study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 179(7), 875–883.
Cuevas, A. G., Chen, R., Slopen, N., Thurber, K. A., Wilson, N., Economos, C., & Williams, D. R. (2020). Assessing the role of health Behaviors, socioeconomic status, and cumulative stress for racial/ethnic disparities in obesity. Obesity, 28(1), 161–170.
Dondero, M., Van Hook, J., Frisco, M. L., & Martin, M. A. (2018). Dietary assimilation among Mexican children in immigrant households: Code-switching and healthy eating across social institutions. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 59(4), 601–624.
Dugas, L. R., Harders, R., Merrill, S., Ebersole, K., Shoham, D. A., Rush, E. C., Assah, F. K., Forrester, T., Durazo-Arvizu, R. A., & Luke, A. (2011). Energy expenditure in adults living in developing compared with industrialized countries: A meta-analysis of doubly Labeled water studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 93(2), 427–441.
Elo, I. T., Mehta, N., & Preston, S. (2017). The contribution of weight status to black-White differences in mortality. Biodemography and Social Biology, 63(3), 206–220.
Frisco, M. L., Quiros, S., & Van Hook, J. (2016). One size may not fit all: How obesity among Mexican-origin youth varies by generation, gender, and age. Demography, 53(6), 2031–2043.
Frisco, M., Baumgartner, E., & Van Hook, J. (2019a). The weight of school entry: Weight gain among Hispanic children of immigrants during the elementary school years. Demographic Research, 40(5), 95–120.
Frisco, M. L., Martin, M. A., & Van Hook, J. (2019b). Socioeconomic status and acculturation: Why Mexican Americans are heavier than Mexican immigrants and whites. In R. Frank (Ed.), Advances in medical sociology (Vol. 19, pp. 71–96). Bingley.
Frisco, M. L., Van Hook, J., & Hummer, R. A. (2019c). Would the elimination of obesity and smoking reduce U.S. racial/ethnic/nativity disparities in Total and healthy life expectancy? SSM – Population Health, 7, 100374.
Fryar, C. D., Carroll, M. D., & Afful, J. (2020). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and severe obesity among children and adolescents aged 2–19 years: United States, 1963–1965 through 2017–2018 (Vol. NCHS Health E-Stats). National Center for Health Statistics.
Gailey, S., & Bruckner, T. A. (2019). Obesity among black women in food deserts: An “omnibus” test of differential risk. SSM – Population Health, 7, 100363.
Gee, G. C., Ro, A., Gavin, A., & Takeuchi, D. T. (2008). Disentangling the effects of racial and weight discrimination on body mass index and obesity among Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 98(3), 493–500.
Geronimus, A. T., Hicken, M. T., Pearson, J. A., Seashols, S. J., Brown, K. L., & Cruz, T. D. (2010). Do us black women experience stress-related accelerated biological aging? Nature, 21(1), 19–38.
Glass, T. A., & McAtee, M. J. (2006). Behavioral science at the crossroads in public health: Extending horizons, envisioning the future. Social Science & Medicine, 62(7), 1650–1671.
Go, A. S., Mozaffarian, D., Roger, V. L., Benjamin, E. J., Berry, J. D., Borden, W. B., Bravata, D. M., Dai, S., Ford, E. S., Fox, C. S., Franco, S., Fullerton, H. J., Gillespie, C., Hailpern, S. M., Heit, J. A., Howard, V. J., Huffman, M. D., Kissela, B. M., Kittner, S. J., et al. (2013). Heart disease and stroke statistics—2013 update: A report from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 127(1), e6–e245.
Goel, M. S., McCarthy, E. P., Phillips, R. S., & Wee, C. C. (2004). Obesity among U.S immigrant subgroups by duration of residence. JAMA, 292(23), 2860–2867.
Gordon-Larsen, P., Harris, K. M., Ward, D. S., & Popkin, B. M. (2003). Acculturation and overweight-related Behaviors among Hispanic immigrants to the us: The National Longitudinal Study of adolescent health. Social Science & Medicine, 57(11), 2023–2034.
Hales, C. M., Carroll, M. D., Fryar, C. D., & Ogden, C. L. (2020). Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity among adults: United States, 2017–2018. National Center for Health Statistics.
Hamilton, E. R. (2015). Epidemiological paradox. In S. Loue & M. Sajatovic (Eds.), Encyclopedia of immigrant health (pp. 630–631). Springer.
Hamilton, E. R., Cardoso, J. B., Hummer, R. A., & Padilla, Y. C. (2011). Assimilation and emerging health disparities among new generations of U.S. children. Demographic Research, 25, 783–818.
Hargrove, T. W. (2018). Intersecting social inequalities and body mass index trajectories from adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 59(1), 56–73.
Harris, K. M., Perreira, K. M., & Lee, D. (2009). Obesity in the transition to adulthood: Predictions across race/ethnicity, immigrant generation, and sex. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163(11), 1022–1028.
Hicken, M. T., Lee, H., & Hing, A. K. (2018). The weight of racism: Vigilance and racial inequalities in weight-related measures. Social Science & Medicine, 199, 157–166.
Horlyck-Romanovsky, M. F., Wyka, K., Echeverria, S. E., Leung, M. M., Fuster, M., & Huang, T. T.-K. (2019). Foreign-born blacks experience lower odds of obesity but higher odds of diabetes than us-born blacks in new York City. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 21(1):47–55.
Hunte, H. E. R. (2011). Association between perceived interpersonal everyday discrimination and waist circumference over a 9-year period in the midlife development in the United States cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 173(11), 1232–1239.
Hunte, H. E. R., & Williams, D. R. (2009). The association between perceived discrimination and obesity in a population-based multiracial and multiethnic adult sample. American Journal of Public Health, 99(7), 1285–1292.
Jackson, M. I. (2011). Foreign-born health integration during the transition to adulthood: The case of weight. Social Science Research, 40(5), 1419–1433.
Jain, A., Mitchell, S., Chirumamilla, R., Zhang, J., Horn, I. B., Lewin, A., & Jennifer Huang, Z. (2012). Prevalence of obesity among young Asian-American children. Childhood Obesity, 8(6), 518–525.
Johnston, D. W., & Lee, W.-S. (2011). Explaining the female black-White obesity gap: A decomposition analysis of proximal causes. Demography, 48(4), 1429–1450.
Kalligeros, M., Shehadeh, F., Mylona, E. K., Benitez, G., Beckwith, C. G., Chan, P. A., & Mylonakis, E. (2020). Association of Obesity with disease severity among patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Obesity, 28(7), 1200–1204.
Kaplan, M. S., Huguet, N., Newsom, J. T., & McFarland, B. H. (2004). The association between length of residence and obesity among Hispanic immigrants. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(4), 323–326.
Klang, E., Kassim, G., Soffer, S., Freeman, R., Levin, M. A., & Reich, D. L. (2020). Severe obesity as an independent risk factor for Covid-19 mortality in hospitalized patients younger than 50. Obesity, 28(9), 1595–1599.
Krishnan, S., Rosenberg, L., Luc Djoussé, L., Cupples, A., & Palmer, J. R. (2007). Overall and central obesity and risk of type 2 diabetes in U.S. black women. Obesity, 15(7), 1860–1866.
Krueger, P. M., Coleman-Minahan, K., & Rooks, R. N. (2014). Race/ethnicity, nativity and trends in BMI among U.S. adults. Obesity, 22(7), 1739–1746.
Lauderdale, D. S., & Rathouz, P. J. (2000). Body mass index in a us National Sample of Asian Americans: Effects of nativity, years since immigration and socioeconomic status. International Journal of Obesity, 24(9), 1188–1194.
Li, N., Strobino, D., Ahmed, S., & Minkovitz, C. S. (2011). Is there a healthy foreign born effect for childhood obesity in the United States? Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(3), 310–323.
Liu, J., Probst, J. C., Harun, N., Bennett, K. J., & Torres, M. E. (2009). Acculturation, physical activity, and obesity among Hispanic adolescents. Ethnicity & Health, 14(5), 509–525.
Markides, K. S., & Coreil, J. (1986). The health of Hispanics in the Southwestern United States: An epidemiologic paradox. Public Health Reports, 101(3), 253–265.
Martin, M. A., Van Hook, J. L., & Quiros, S. (2015). Is socioeconomic incorporation associated with a healthier diet? Dietary patterns among Mexican-origin children in the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 147, 20–29.
Martinez, E. (1999). Mexican American/Chicano families. In H. McAdoo (Ed.), Family ethnicity: Strength in diversity (pp. 121–134). Sage.
Masters, R. K., Powers, D. A., & Link, B. G. (2013a). Obesity and us mortality risk over the adult life course. American Journal of Epidemiology, 177(5), 431–442.
Masters, R. K., Reither, E. N., Powers, D. A., Claire Yang, Y., Burger, A. E., & Link, B. G. (2013b). The impact of obesity on us mortality levels: The importance of age and cohort factors in population estimates. American Journal of Public Health, 103(10), 1895–1901.
McFarland, M. J., Taylor, J., & McFarland, C. A. S. (2018). Weighed down by discriminatory policing: Perceived unfair treatment and black-White disparities in waist circumference. SSM – Population Health, 5, 210–217.
Mehta, N. K., & Chang, V. W. (2009). Mortality attributable to obesity among middle-aged adults in the United States. Demography, 46(4), 851–872.
Mehta, N. K., Elo, I. T., Ford, N. D., & Siegel, K. R. (2015). Obesity among U.S.- and foreign-born blacks by region of birth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(2), 269–273.
Mirowsky, J., & Ross, C. E. (2015). Education, health, and the default American lifestyle. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 56(3), 297–306.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. (2021). High and rising mortality rates among working-age adults. In K. M. Harris, M. K. Majmundar, & T. Becker (Eds.), Washington. The National Academies Press.
Nestle, M. (2002). Food politics: How the food industry influences nutrition and health. University of California Press.
O’Connor, D. B., & Conner, M. (2011). Effects of stress on eating behavior. In R. J. Contrada & A. Baum (Eds.), The handbook of stress science: Biology, psychology, and Health (pp. 275–286). Springer.
Office of Minority Health. (2020). Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The Office of Minority Health.
Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Curtin, L. R., McDowell, M. A., Tabak, C. J., & Flegal, K. M. (2006). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. JAMA, 295(13), 1549–1555.
Ogden, C. L., Fryar, C. D., Hales, C. M., Carroll, M. D., Aoki, Y., & Freedman, D. S. (2018). Differences in obesity prevalence by demographics and urbanization in us children and adolescents, 2013–2016. JAMA, 319(23), 2410–2418.
Olshansky, S. J., Passaro, D. J., Hershow, R. C., Layden, J., Carnes, B. A., Brody, J., Hayflick, L., Butler, R. N., Allison, D. B., & Ludwig, D. S. (2005). A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. New England Journal of Medicine, 352(11), 1138–1145.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2017). Obesity update. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Oropesa, R. S., & Landale, N. S. (2009). Why do immigrant youths who never Enroll in U.S. schools matter? School enrollment among Mexicans and non-Hispanic whites. Sociology of Education, 82(3), 240–266.
Palaniappan, L. P., Wong, E. C., Shin, J. J., Fortmann, S. P., & Lauderdale, D. S. (2011). Asian Americans have greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome despite lower body mass index. International Journal of Obesity, 35(3), 393–400.
Parikh, N. I., Pencina, M. J., Wang, T. J., Lanier, K. J., Fox, C. S., D’Agostino, R. B., & Vasan, R. S. (2007). Increasing trends in incidence of overweight and obesity over 5 decades. The American Journal of Medicine, 120(3), 242–50.e2.
Park, J., Myers, D., Kao, D., & Min, S. H. (2009). Immigrant obesity and unhealthy assimilation: Alternative estimates of convergence or divergence, 1995–2005. Social Science & Medicine, 69(11), 1625–1633.
Park, Y., Wang, S., Kitahara, C. M., Moore, S. C., Berrington, A., de Gonzalez, L., Bernstein, E. T., Chang, A. J., Flint, D. M., Freedman, J. M., Gaziano, R. N., Hoover, M. S., Linet, M. P., Robien, K., Schairer, C., Sesso, H. D., White, E., Willcox, B. J., Thun, M. J., et al. (2014). Body mass index and risk of death in Asian Americans. American Journal of Public Health, 104(3), 520–525.
Pérez-Escamilla, R., & Putnik, P. (2007). The role of acculturation in nutrition, lifestyle, and incidence of type 2 diabetes among Latinos. The Journal of Nutrition, 137(4), 860–870.
Phelan, J. C., & Link, B. G. (2015). Is racism a fundamental cause of inequalities in health? Annual Review of Sociology, 41(1), 311–330.
Pontzer, H., Raichlen, D. A., Wood, B. M., Mabulla, A. Z. P., Racette, S. B., & Marlowe, F. W. (2012). Hunter-gatherer energetics and human obesity. PLoS One, 7(7), e40503.
Popkin, B. M. (2008). The world is fat: The fads, trends, policies, and products that are fattening the human race. Avery-Penguin Press.
Popkin, B. M., & Richard Udry, J. (1998). Adolescent obesity increases significantly in second and third generation U.S. immigrants: The National Longitudinal Study of adolescent health. The Journal of Nutrition, 128(4), 701–706.
Popkin, B. M., Shufa, D., Green, W. D., Beck, M. A., Algaith, T., Herbst, C. H., Alsukait, R. F., Alluhidan, M., Alazemi, N., & Shekar, M. (2020). Individuals with obesity and Covid-19: A global perspective on the epidemiology and biological relationships. Obesity Reviews, 21(11), e13128.
Preston, S. H., Vierboom, Y. C., & Stokes, A. (2018). The role of obesity in exceptionally slow us mortality improvement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(5), 957–961.
Reid, A. E., Rosenthal, L., Earnshaw, V. A., Lewis, T. T., Lewis, J. B., Stasko, E. C., Tobin, J. N., & Ickovics, J. R. (2016). Discrimination and excessive weight gain during pregnancy among black and Latina young women. Social Science & Medicine, 156, 134–141.
Reither, E. N., Hauser, R. M., & Yang, Y. (2009). Do birth cohorts matter? Age-period-cohort analyses of the obesity epidemic in the United States. Social Science & Medicine, 69(10), 1439–1448.
Riosmena, F., Wong, R., & Palloni, A. (2013). Migration selection, protection, and acculturation in health: A binational perspective on older adults. Demography, 50(3), 1039–1064.
Ro, A., & Bostean, G. (2015). Duration of U.S. stay and body mass index among Latino and Asian immigrants: A test of theoretical pathways. Social Science & Medicine, 144, 39–47.
Ro, A., & Fleischer, N. (2014). Changes in health selection of obesity among Mexican immigrants: A binational examination. Social Science & Medicine, 123, 114–124.
Ro, A., Geronimus, A., Bound, J., Griffith, D., & Gee, G. (2015). Cohort and duration patterns among Asian immigrants: Comparing trends in obesity and self-rated health. Biodemography and Social Biology, 61(1), 65–80.
Robert, S. A., & Reither, E. N. (2004). A multilevel analysis of race, community disadvantage, and body mass index among adults in the us. Social Science & Medicine, 59(12), 2421–2434.
Sabin, M. A., Kao, K.-T., Juonala, M., Baur, L. A., & Wake, M. (2015). Viewpoint article: Childhood obesity – Looking back over 50 years to begin to look forward. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 51(1), 82–86.
Sanchez-Vaznaugh, E. V., Ichiro Kawachi, S. V., & Subramanian, Brisa N. Sánchez and Dolores Acevedo-Garcia. (2008). Differential effect of birthplace and length of residence on body mass index (Bmi) by education, gender and race/ethnicity. Social Science & Medicine, 67(8), 1300–1310.
Scharoun-Lee, M., Adair, L. S., Kaufman, J. S., & Gordon-Larsen, P. (2009). Obesity, race/ethnicity and the multiple dimensions of socioeconomic status during the transition to adulthood: A factor analysis approach. Social Science & Medicine, 68(4), 708–716.
Singh, G. K., & Lin, S. C. (2013). Dramatic increases in obesity and overweight prevalence among Asian subgroups in the United States, 1992–2011. ISRN Preventive Medicine, 2013, e898691.
The Office of Minority Health. (2020). Obesity and African Americans. Office of Minority Health.
Torres, S. J., & Nowson, C. A. (2007). Relationship between stress, eating behavior, and obesity. Nutrition, 23(11), 887–894.
Ullmann, S. H., Goldman, N., & Pebley, A. R. (2013). Contextual factors and weight change over time: A comparison between U.S. Hispanics and other population sub-groups. Social Science & Medicine, 90, 40–48.
Valenzuela, A. (1999). Gender roles and settlement activities among children and their immigrant families. American Behavioral Scientist, 42(4), 720–742.
Van Hook, J., & Balistreri, K. S. (2007). Immigrant generation, socioeconomic status, and economic development of countries of origin: A longitudinal study of body mass index among children. Social Science & Medicine, 65(5), 976–989.
Van Hook, J., & Baker, E. (2010). Big boys and little girls: Gender, acculturation, and weight among young children of immigrants. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(2), 200–214.
Van Hook, J., Baker, E., Altman, C. E., & Frisco, M. L. (2012). Canaries in a coalmine: Immigration and overweight among Mexican-origin children in the US and Mexico. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 74(2), 125–134.
Van Hook, J., Quiros, S., & Frisco, M. L. (2015). The food similarity index: A new measure of dietary acculturation based on dietary recall data. The Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 17(2), 441–449.
Van Hook, J., Quirós, S., Dondero, M., & Altman, C. E. (2018). Healthy eating among Mexican immigrants: Migration in childhood and time in the United States. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 59(3), 391–410.
Van Hook, J., Frisco, M. L., & Graham, C. E. (2020). Signs of the end of the paradox? Cohort shifts in smoking and obesity and the Hispanic life expectancy advantage. Sociological Science, 7, 391–414.
Viruell-Fuentes, E., Miranda, P. Y., & Abdulrahimc, S. (2012). More than culture: Structural racism, intersectionality theory, and immigrant health. Social Science & Medicine, 75(12), 2099–2106.
Wang, S., Quan, J., Kanaya, A. M., & Fernandez, A. (2011). Asian Americans and obesity in California: A protective effect of biculturalism. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 13(2), 276–283.
Waters, M. C. (2002). The social construction of race and ethnicity: Some examples from demography. In N. Denton & S. Tolnay (Eds.), American diversity. SUNY Press.
Wen, M., & Kowaleski-Jones, L. (2012). Sex and ethnic differences in validity of self-reported adult height, weight and body mass index. Ethnicity & Disease, 22(1), 72–78.
Zachary, Z., Brianna, F., Brianna, L., Garrett, P., Jade, W., Alyssa, D., & Mikayla, K. (2020). Self-quarantine and weight gain related risk factors during the covid-19 pandemic. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 14(3), 210–216.
Editors and Affiliations
© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG
About this chapter
Cite this chapter
Frisco, M.L., Shaulis, K., Van Hook, J., Hummer, R.A. (2022). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Obesity Prevalence: What Have We Learned from Demographic and Population Health Science?. In: Garcia-Alexander, G., Poston, Jr., D.L. (eds) International Handbook of the Demography of Obesity. International Handbooks of Population, vol 12. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-10936-2_8
Publisher Name: Springer, Cham
Print ISBN: 978-3-031-10935-5
Online ISBN: 978-3-031-10936-2