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Diagnosis and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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Liver Disease in Clinical Practice

Part of the book series: In Clinical Practice ((ICP))

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Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth commonest form of cancer and is the third commonest form of cancer related death worldwide. The development of HCC is closely related with the presence of cirrhosis. In African and Asian populations HCC may be seen in the absence of cirrhosis. It is a disease with a worldwide distribution, but is more prevalent in regions where both chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and chronic hepatitis C infections (CHC) are endemic. This means that HCC is more common in parts of Africa, South East Asia and the Far East. Historically, the outcome for patients with HCC has been poor as many patients present with late, incurable disease. The role of liver ultrasound surveillance in patients at increased risk of HCC is mandated by many liver societies, but the practice of screening remains controversial and novel biomarkers for HCC are needed. HCC is often staged using the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. This algorithm also directs the clinicians to the most appropriate treatment. The array of treatments is broadening with curative treatments including surgical liver resection, liver transplantation and ablation therapies, whilst non-curative treatments include transarterial embolic approaches (transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), systemic internal radiotherapy (SIRT)), whilst newer treatments including immuno-oncology (IO) and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), although where these new treatments sit within existing algorithms has yet to be decided. This chapter will discuss the current management and treatment of patients with HCC.

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Sweeney, E., Cross, T. (2022). Diagnosis and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. In: Cross, T. (eds) Liver Disease in Clinical Practice. In Clinical Practice. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-10012-3_16

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-10012-3_16

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  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-10011-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-10012-3

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