Skip to main content

Optimizing Anonymity and Performance in a Mix Network

  • 961 Accesses

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS,volume 13291)


Mix networks were developed to hide the correspondence between senders and recipients of the communication. In order to be usable and defend user privacy, anonymous communication networks like mixnets need to be parameterized in an optimal manner. This work uses a mixnet simulator to determine reasonable packet size and parameters for the real-world Nym mixnet, a stratified continuous-time mixnet that uses the Sphinx packet format. We analyzed network parameters, such as the sending rate, cover traffic overhead, and mixing delay, to determine the impact of various configurations on the anonymity and performance.


  • Mix networks
  • Anonymity
  • Privacy
  • Scalability
  • Simulation

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD   49.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD   64.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions


  1. 1.


  1. Chaum, D.: Untraceable electronic mail, return addresses, and digital pseudonyms. Commun. ACM 24, 84–88 (1981)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Chaum, D., et al.: cMix: mixing with minimal real-time asymmetric cryptographic operations. In: Gollmann, D., Miyaji, A., Kikuchi, H. (eds.) ACNS 2017. LNCS, vol. 10355, pp. 557–578. Springer, Cham (2017).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Danezis, G., Goldberg, I.: Sphinx: a compact and provably secure mix format. In: Proceedings of 30th IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 269–282 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Das, D., Meiser, S., Mohammadi, E., Kate, A.: Anonymity trilemma: strong anonymity, low bandwidth overhead, low latency-choose two. In IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP), pp 108–126 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Diaz, C., Halpin, H., Kiayias, A.: The next generation of privacy infrastructure, The Nym Network (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  6. Dingledine, R., Mathewson, N., Syverson, P.F.: Tor: the second-generation onion router. In: Proceedings of the 13th Conference on USENIX Security Symposium, pp. 13–21 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Leibowitz, H., Piotrowska, A.M., Danezis, G., Herzberg, A.: No right to remain silent: isolating malicious mixes. In: Heninger, N., Traynor, P., (eds.) 28th USENIX Security Symposium, pp. 1841–1858 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Panchenko, A., et al.: Website fingerprinting at internet scale. In: 23rd Annual Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Pfitzmann, A., Hansen, M.: Anonymity, unlinkability, unobservability, pseudonymity, and identity management - A consolidated proposal for terminology (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Piotrowska, A., Hayes, J., Elahi, T.: The loopix anonymity system. In: Proceedings of the 26th USENIX Conference on Security Symposium, pp. 1199–1216 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  11. Piotrowska, A.M.: Studying the anonymity trilemma with a discrete-event mix network simulator. In: WPES 2021: Proceedings of the 20th Workshop on Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society, pp. 39–44 (2021)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Serjantov, A., Danezis, G.: Towards an information theoretic metric for anonymity. In: Dingledine, R., Syverson, P. (eds.) PET 2002. LNCS, vol. 2482, pp. 41–53. Springer, Heidelberg (2003).

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Harry Halpin .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Jee, M., Piotrowska, A.M., Halpin, H., Marina, N. (2022). Optimizing Anonymity and Performance in a Mix Network. In: Aïmeur, E., Laurent, M., Yaich, R., Dupont, B., Garcia-Alfaro, J. (eds) Foundations and Practice of Security. FPS 2021. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol 13291. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-08146-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-08147-7

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)