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Lovers of the Rose: Islamic Affect and the Politics of Commemoration in Turkish Museal Display

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Neo-Ottoman Imaginaries in Contemporary Turkey

Part of the book series: Modernity, Memory and Identity in South-East Europe ((MOMEIDSEE))

Abstract

This chapter explores Turkish museal display as an arena for memory-cultural Islamisation, extending beyond the walls of museums. It probes museums as spaces for exhibiting nationalism, and the burgeoning interest in religion and affect within a new museology. It discusses how Turkish expositions have appropriated aspects of such a new museology in restorative-commemorative expositions of the Ottoman past, under the auspices of the AKP government. The establishment and re-organisation of museums has co-occurred with (and extended into) a performative ritualisation of public space and education. The Ottoman-Islamic past hence is re-constructed, re-imagined, and re-spatialised, not only as a national-cultural heritage, but as ethics of citizenship. Such tendencies are developed in an analysis of the revitalisation, reinterpretation, and exposition of hilye-i sṃerif calligraphy. This Ottoman-Islamic genre, commemorating and visually conjuring the love (asṃk) for Prophet Muhammad, has emerged as a quasi-national, state-patronised, Turkish-Islamic art form, exhibited in museal-cum-ritual and affective display.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    A note on spelling and transliteration: the Arabic word hilya literally means description, or hilye in Turkish. During the Ottoman period, the calligraphic artform in focus for this essay was often referred to as hilye-i şerife. In the following, however, I refer to it as hilye-i şerif, following recent conventions and—most notably—the print material of the exhibitions here discussed. I use Turkish forms of Islamic concepts only in direct quotes, and Ottoman-Turkish spelling only for technical concepts relating to the components of hilye-i şerif (âyet, hilâl, etc.). Otherwise, I apply simplified Arabic forms for proper names and Islamic/Quranic concepts, excluding diacritical signs (Muhammad, Ali, Kaba, Quran, masjid, etc.).

  2. 2.

    This essay is partly based on fieldwork in Topkapı Palace Museum, Panorama 1453 History Museum, MiniaTürk, and Hilye-i Şerif ve Tesbih Museum (2004 and 2016–2019); partly on analysis of calligraphies and print material from temporary exhibitions of hilye-i şerif (2010–2015) and Hilye-i Şerif ve Tesbih Museum. The sections on Topkapı Palace Museum and Holy Birth Week/Mevlidi Nebi largely rely on my collaboration with Neşe Kınıkoğlu (see Janson and Kınıkoğlu 2021). I wish to express my gratitude to Mehmed Çebi, collector and patron of contemporary hilye-i şerif for his kind permission to reproduce works from his collections, which have provided the basis of several recent exhibitions.

  3. 3.

    For discussions of the classical hilye-i şerif tradition, see further Derman 1998a; Derman 1998b; Zakariya 2003/ 2004; Schick 2008; Gruber 2017; Gruber 2019. Selim Deringil (1993) offers important perspectives on the invention of tradition in late-Ottoman nationalism and its symbolic expression, providing interesting historical parallels to the contemporary tendencies discussed in this essay, worthy of further exploration. For critical perspectives on the modern reception of Ottoman artistic and architectural traditions, see Eldem 2010, 2013a, b; Ersoy 2016. Christine Gruber (2019, 2020) is one of few scholars to explore how classical/devotional art traditions are subject to contemporary negotiation (and commodification) in Turkey (and beyond).

  4. 4.

    I should underscore that this chapter does not engage in any exhaustive or systematic discussion of the calligraphic techniques or scripts employed in contemporary hilye-i şerif. For some observations in this regard, see Schick 2011. The purpose of the following is to probe the graphic composition and theological references in some recent work, as it negotiates a classical-devotional hilye tradition.

  5. 5.

    A caveat: the grammar forms in this quote appear somewhat irregular, as I have been advised by colleagues versed in Ottoman-Turkish. Rather than aspiring to linguistic correctness, however, they are meant to illustrate the floral/cosmological metaphors in Hakani’s opus and other Prophet devotional sources discussed in Gruber’s empirically rich and illuminating article.

  6. 6.

    Through the emphatic, rhythmic repetition of Allah-hu (where hu functions as an intensive, approximately meaning “him”, or “just him”), or merely hu, a mystic-ecstatic state of consciousness is pursued in some Sufi dhikr ritual techniques.

  7. 7.

    The research for this chapter has been generously supported by the Center for Advanced Middle Eastern Studies (CMES), Lund University, within the framework of the research project The Middle East in the Contemporary World (MECW).

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Janson, T. (2023). Lovers of the Rose: Islamic Affect and the Politics of Commemoration in Turkish Museal Display. In: Raudvere, C., Onur, P. (eds) Neo-Ottoman Imaginaries in Contemporary Turkey. Modernity, Memory and Identity in South-East Europe. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-08023-4_3

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