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Abstract

Capsicum annuum is a well-known spice in different areas of the world from old times due to its specific taste, color, and aroma. It has been used in most of the kitchens and dietary products. The objective of this chapter is to review the medicinal and pharmacological properties along with botanical properties and chemical composition of C. annuum. It contains capsaicinoids (capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin), carotenoids (lutein​, zeaxanthin, capsorubin, β-carotene), flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, luteolin), and steroid saponins (capsicidine, capsicoside E, F, G). Major constituents of C. annuum essential oil are capsiamide and acetic acid identified using GC/MS. It has been reported that C. annuum has antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, antiproliferative, anti-adipogenic, antimutagenic, enzyme inhibitory, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, renoprotective, hypocholesterolemic, antitumor, anti-obesity, analgesic, food craving, and anti-reflux activities. C. annuum has been accepted with GRAS status through FEMA and is confirmed through the FDA for usage as “spices and other natural seasonings and flavorings” and “color additive” in food.

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Yuca, H. (2022). Capsicum annuum L.. In: Gürağaç Dereli, F.T., Ilhan, M., Belwal, T. (eds) Novel Drug Targets With Traditional Herbal Medicines. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-07753-1_7

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