Skip to main content

A Web-Based Tool to Identify Interventions to Reduce Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistance

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
HCI International 2022 Posters (HCII 2022)


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is widely recognized as one of the greatest threats to public health in the 21st century. Microbial pathogens including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi are rapidly evolving to become resistant to antimicrobial drugs. Analysis from 2016 reported that at least 700,000 people die every year due to drug-resistant infections; if no action is taken, this number is expected to jump to 10 million human lives per year by 2050 ( Proven methods to help slow the transmission of antimicrobial resistance, such as infection prevention and control practices, and stewardship against misuse and overuse of antimicrobials, are often not effectively implemented due to economic considerations, system inefficiencies, or human behaviour complexities.

In response, our team is developing an online and interactive knowledge translation tool intended to accurately represent complex systems and effectively identify intervention opportunities. Using qualitative research methods, we are mapping out the sociotechnical system of the Canadian beef cattle industry from a One Health perspective. We are engaging with system stakeholders to ensure accuracy and completeness of our information, and consulting potential users to identify the most effective functions and interface characteristics of the tool. We believe that making important system information accessible is crucial to inform opportunities for new products, services and technologies, spark research and business collaborations, prompt consumer awareness and action, and inform policy. Our aim is to create a model that can be emulated to create similar tools in other fields to identify opportunities to help slow the transmission of AMR.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  1. O’Neill, J.: Antimicrobial resistance: tackling a crisis for the health and wealth of nations. Rev. Antimicro. Resist. (2016). Accessed 5 Mar 2022

  2. Council of Canadian Academies: When Antibiotics Fail. The Expert Panel on the Potential Socio-Economic Impacts of Antimicrobial Resistance in Canada (2019). Accessed 5 Mar 2022

  3. World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World Organisation for Animal Health. Antimicrobial Resistance: A Manual for Developing National Action Plans (2016). Accessed 5 Mar 2022

  4. Scott, H.M., Acuff, G., Bergeron, G., Bourassa, M.W., Simjee, S., Singer, R.S.: Antimicrobial resistance in a One Health context: exploring complexities, seeking solutions, and communicating risks. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 1441(1), 3–7 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. McCubbin, K.D., Anholt, R.M., de Jong, E., Ida, J.A., Nóbrega, D.B., Kastelic, J.P., et al.: Knowledge gaps in the understanding of antimicrobial resistance in Canada. Front Public Heal. 9, 726484 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Michie, S., van Stralen, M.M., West, R.: The behaviour change wheel: a new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implement. Sci. 6(42) (2011).

  7. Duncan, E.M., Charani, E., Clarkson, J.E., Francis, J.J., Gillies, K., Grimshaw, J.M., et al.: A behavioural approach to specifying interventions: what insights can be gained for the reporting and implementation of interventions to reduce antibiotic use in hospitals? J Antimicrob. Chemother. 75(5), 1338–1346 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Raboisson, D., Ferchiou, A., Sans, P., Lhermie, G., Dervillé, M.: The economics of antimicrobial resistance in veterinary medicine: optimizing societal benefits through mesoeconomic approaches from public and private perspectives. One Heal. 10, 100145 (2020).

  9. Warreman, E.B., Lambregts, M.M.C., Wouters, R.H.P., Visser, L.G., Staats, H., van Dijk, E., et al.: Determinants of in-hospital antibiotic prescription behaviour: a systematic review and formation of a comprehensive framework. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 25(5), 538–545 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Carayon, P.: Human factors of complex sociotechnical systems. Appl. Ergon. 37(4), 525–535 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Leavitt, H.J.: Applying organizational change in industry: structural, technological and humanistic approaches. In: March, J. (ed.) Handbook of Organizations, p. 27. Routledge (1965)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Davis, M.C., Challenger, R., Jayewardene, D.N.W., Clegg, C.W.: Advancing socio-technical systems thinking: a call for bravery. Appl. Ergon. 45(2), 171–180 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Clegg, C.W.: Sociotechnical principles for system design. Appl. Ergon. 31(5), 463–477 (2003).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Hughes, H.P.N., Clegg, C.W., Bolton, L.E., Machon, L.C.: Systems scenarios: a tool for facilitating the socio-technical design of work systems. Ergonomics 60(10), 1319–1335 (2017).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Cheng, M., Blaak, J., Amjad, K., Liu, K., Kupis, J., Simmons, S.M., et al. Application of sociotechnical system analysis to the complex problem of antimicrobial resistance. In: One Health Antimicrobial Stewardship Conference (2021).

  16. Kukkonen, T., Cooper, A.: An arts-based knowledge translation (ABKT) planning framework for researchers. Evid. Policy A J. Res. Debate Pract. 15(2), 293–311 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Keen, S., Todres, L. Strategies for disseminating qualitative research findings: three exemplars. Forum Qual. Soc. Res. 8(3) (2007).

  18. World Bank. Drug Resistant Infections: A Threat to Our Economic Future (2017). Accessed 9 Mar 2022

  19. Coulter, J.K.: Communication for rural innovation – rethinking Agricultural Extension, Exp. Agric. 41(2), 269 (2005).

  20. Communities of Practice. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed 9 Mar 2022

  21. Brooke, J.: SUS: a quick and dirty usability scale. In: Jordan, P.W., Thomas, B., McClelland, J., Weerdmeester, B. (eds.) Usability Evaluation in Industry, pp. 189–194. CRC Press, Bristol (1996).

Download references


This research is part of the AMR – One Health Consortium, funded by the Major Innovation Fund program of the Ministry of Jobs, Economy and Innovation, Government of Alberta. Our thanks to Dr. Herman Barkema, Golsa Kafili, and Samantha Larose. We would also like to acknowledge the significant contributions from our advisors and past team members, including Michelle Cheng, Dr. Rebecca Malott, Dr. Cindy Hutchison, Johanna Blaak, Dr. Jaime Kaufman, Dr. Michele Anholt, Dr. Danielle Julien, Dana Jelinski, Dr. Mike Jelinski, Dr. Craig Dorin, Julia Kupis, Kumel Amjad, Kathy Liu, Dr. Sarah Simmons, and Greg Hallihan. We would also like to thank all participants who have shared their expertise of the beef cattle industry with us, as well as all participants and advisors who have shared their knowledge of AMR.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Courtney MacDonald .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

MacDonald, C., Bradford, A., MacGregor, J., Flemons, K., Traynor, B., Conly, J.M. (2022). A Web-Based Tool to Identify Interventions to Reduce Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistance. In: Stephanidis, C., Antona, M., Ntoa, S. (eds) HCI International 2022 Posters. HCII 2022. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1580. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-06416-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-06417-3

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics