Skip to main content

Characterization of the Fermentation Process and Aroma Profile of Carob Brandy

  • 124 Accesses

Abstract

The possibility of producing carob brandy was investigated, focusing on the fermentation of carob and the preliminary characterization of the volatile components in the obtained distillates. Fermentations were carried out in carob mash with or without added nutrients by five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains at three different temperatures. The obtained wine was subjected to fractional distillation in a copper still to produce carob spirit. Analysis of sugars and fermentation products was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with MS detection was used to analyze the volatile components of carob wine and brandy. Carob flour and the strains used can be efficiently used for the fermentation process to produce carob wine with ethanol content ranging from 46.4 to 50.5 gL−1 and corresponding yield coefficients ranging from 0.45 to 0.49 gg−1. More than ninety compounds detected in carob spirit; ethyl 2-methyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methyl propanoate, ethyl cinnamate, ethyl hexanoate, beta-ionone, ethyl butanoate and ethyl octanoate, largely contribute to the bouquet of the spirit. Thus, a novel volatile spirit may be an additional product in the carob processing chain and represent a new potential, especially for small carob growers.

Keywords

  • Fermentation
  • Yeast
  • Carob
  • Carob brandy
  • Distillate
  • Fruit spirit

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-031-04797-8_7
  • Chapter length: 20 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   269.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-031-04797-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   349.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 8.

References

  1. Access to European Union law. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32008R0110

  2. Santos, A.V., Ramos, D., Laredo, R.R., Silva, R.O.F., Chagas, A.E., Pasqual. M.: Production and fruit quality of yellow passion fruit from the cultivation of seedlings at different ages. Revista de Ciências Agroveterinárias 16, 33–40 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Capobiango, M., Mastello, R.B., Chin, S.T., Oliveira, E.S., Cardeal, Z.L., Marriot, P.J.: Identification of aroma-active volatiles in banana Terra spirit using multidimensional gas chromatography with simultaneuos mass spectrometry and olfactometry detection. J. Chromatogr. A 1388, 227–235 (2015)

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Benković, M., Belščak-Cvitanović, A., Bauman, I., Komes, D., Srečec, S.: Flow properties and chemical composition of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) flours as related to particle size and seed presence. Food Res. Int. 100, 211–218 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  5. Goulas, V., Stylos, E., Chatziathanasiadou, M., Mavromoustakos, T., Tzakos, A.: Functional components of carob fruit: linking the chemical and biological space. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, 1875 (2016)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Kokkinofta, R., Yiannopoulos, S., Stylianou, M.A., Agapiou, A.: Use of chemometrics for correlating carobs nutritional compositional values with geographic origin. Metabolites 10, 62–73 (2020)

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. El Batal, H., Hasib, A., Ouatmane, A., Abdelali, B., Dehbi, F., Jaouad, A.: Yield and composition of carob bean gum produced from different Moroccan populations of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.). J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 4, 309–314 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Benković, M., et al.: Production of cocoa and carob-based drink powders by foam mat drying. J. Food Process Eng 41(6), e12825–e12825 (2018)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Benković, M., Bosiljkov, T., Semić, A., Ježek, D., Srečec, S.: Influence of carob flour and carob bean gum on rheological properties of cocoa and carob pastry fillings. Foods 8, 66 (2019)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Yatmaz, E., Turhan, I.: Carob as a carbon source for fermentation technology. Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 16, 200–208 (2018)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Miličević, B., et al.: Impact of the fermentation process with immobilized yeast cells on the aroma profile and sensory quality of distillates produced from carob pods (Ceratonia siliqua L.). Acta Tecnología 11, 5–9 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Turhan, I., Bialka, K.L., Demirci, A., Karhan, M.: Ethanol production from carob extract by using S. cerevisiae. Bioresource Technol. 101, 5290–5296 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Sánchez, S., Lozano, L.J., Godínez, C., Juan, D., Pérez, A., Hernández, F.J.: Carob pod as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol in Mediterranean areas. Appl. Energy 87, 3417–3424 (2010)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Hanousek Čiča, K., Mrvčić, J., Srečec, S., Filipan, K., Blažić, M., Stanzer, D.: Physicochemical and aromatic characterization of carob macerates produced by different maceration conditions. Food Sci. Nutr. 8, 942–954 (2020)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Malvern Panalytical. https://www.malvernpanalytical.com/en/products/product-range/mastersizer-range

  16. Petravić-Tominac, V., et al.: Production of blackberry wine by microfermentation using commercial yeasts Fermol Rouge and Fermol Mediterranée. Agric. Conspec. Sci. 78, 49–55 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  17. Trontel, A., Baršić, V., Slavica, A., Šantek, B., Novak, S.: Modelling the effect of different substrates and temperature on the growth and lactic acid production by Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531T in batch process. Food Technol. Biotechnol. 48, 352–361 (2010)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A.: Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybidic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 16, 144–158 (1965)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Du, L., He, T., Li, W., Wanga, R., Xiao, D.: Analysis of volatile compounds in Chinese Laobaigan liquor using headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS. Anal. Methods 7, 1906–1913 (2015)

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Rovenský, J., Payer, J., Herold, M.: S. In: Rovenský, J., Payer, J., Herold, M. (eds.) Dictionary of Rheumatology, pp. 295–325. Springer, Cham (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21335-4_19

  21. Miller, G.H.: Whisky Science, pp. 421–467. Springer, Cham (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-13732-8

  22. Adeboye, P.T., Bettiga, M., Olsson, L.: The chemical nature of phenolic compounds determines their toxicity and induces distinct physiological responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in lignocellulose hydrolysates. AMB Expr. 4, 46 (2014)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Saerens, S.M., Delvaux, F., Verstrepen, K.J., van Dijck, P., Thevelein, J.M., Delvaux, F.R.: Parameters affecting ethyl ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 454–461 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Farag, M.A., El-Kersh, D.M.: Volatiles profiling in Ceratonia siliqua (Carob bean) from Egypt and inresponse to roasting as analyzed via solid-phase microextraction coupled to chemometrics. J. Adv. Res. 8, 379–385 (2017)

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. Krokou, A., Stylianou, M., Agapiou, A.: Assessing the volatile profile of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 26, 35365–35374 (2019)

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  26. Cantalejo, M.J.: Effects of roasting temperature on the aroma components of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L). J. Agric. Food Chem. 45, 1345–1350 (1997)

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. Rodríguez-Solana, R., Salgado, J.M., Pérez-Santín, E., Romano, A.: Effect of carob variety and roasting on the antioxidant capacity, and the phenolic and furanic contents of carob liquors. J. Sci. Food Agric. 99, 2697–2707 (2018)

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

Authors would like to thank to Valentina Papić Bogadi for helpful comments on the manuscript and for correcting the English style.

Funding

The research is funded by the Croatian Science Foundation, grant number: IP-11-2013_3304-TEUCLIC and IP-2018–01-9717- SPB-LCF, and paper was produced as part of the “Atrium of Knowledge” project co-financed by the European Union from the European Regional Development Fund and the Operational Programme Competitiveness and Cohesion 2014–2020.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jasna Mrvčić .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Appendices

Appendix 1. Conditions of Head Space Gas Chromatography with Flame-ionization Detection (HS and GC-FID)

HS conditions GC conditions
O/N/T 80/100/110 ℃
Thermostating time: 20 min
Pressurization time: 0.2 min
Injection time: 0.05 min
Withdrawal time: 0.1 min
Carrier: He
Pressure: 25 psgi
Injector temperature: 110 ℃
Detector temperature: .0 ℃
Oven program:
35 ℃, 5 min
10 ℃/min 60 ℃
60 ℃, 2 min
10 ℃/min, 180 ℃
180 ℃, 7 min

Appendix 2. Validation Parameters for Analysis of VOC’s by HS-GS-FID Method

Compound Linearity range
(ppm)
R2 over calibration curve range LOD
(ppm)
LOQ
(ppm)
mean ± sd A (%) CV (%)
Propan-1-ol 3–100 0.9976 2.564 8.548 2.960 ± 0.001 −1.33 0.04
98.260 ± 1.77 −1.74 1.77
Butan-2-ol 1–100 0.9968 0.508 1.692 1.070 ± 0,001 +7.00 0.09
96.446 ± 0.627 −3.55 0.65
Ethyl acetate 1–100 0.9953 0.171 0.572 1.007 ± 0.013 +0.70 1.29
97.387 ± 1.477 −2.61 1.52
2-methylpropan-1-ol 1–100 0.9976 0.474 1.581 1.009 ± 0.044 +0.90 4.36
96.606 ± 0.511 −3.39 0.53
3-methylbutan-1-ol 0,5–100 0.9986 0.472 1.574 0.534 ± 0.037 −10.40 6.80
97.103 ± 1.587 −2.897 1.63
2-methylbutan-1-ol 1–100 0.9978 0.387 1.290 1.085 ± 0.040 +8.5 3.69
95.047 ± 1.515 −4.95 1.59
Ethyl-butanoate 0,5–80 0.9972 0.063 0.208 0.389 ± 0.085 −22.20 21.85
77.497 ± 0.202 −3.13 0.269
Iso-amyl-acetate 0,05–80 0.9960 0.005 0.014 0.051 ± 0.009 +2.00 17.64
79.980 ± 0.584 −0.03 0.73
Ethyl-hexanoate 1–80 0.9919 0.032 0.106 1.164 ± 0.063 +16.40 5.41
77.011 ± 0.415 −3.74 0.54
Ethyl-octanoate 0,5–100 0.9904 0.060 0.200 0.492 ± 0.073 −1.60 14.84
96.436 ± 0.568 −0.36 0.59

Data on GC Method Validation

Method linearity was determined by evaluating the regression curve and it is indicated by the square correlation coefficient (R2). Linearity was achieved with a minimal R2 of 0.990.

Detection limits were determined by replicate HS-GC-FID analysis with the lowest concentration for all tested compounds (Table 1). The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were calculated using the following equations:

LOD = 3 * S/N ratio * lowest concentration of linear sample

LOQ = 10 * S/N ratio * lowest concentration of linear sample

S/N ratio was determined using TotalChrom GC software (Perkin-Elmer).

Precision was expressed as the coefficient of variation (%CV) of HS-GC-FID method and it was determined in five replicates in concentrations pointed out in Table S4.

Accuracy (A) was calculated as the percentage relative error of the method:

A = (mean calculated concentration – nominal concentration)/nominal concentration * 100%.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Mrvčić, J. et al. (2022). Characterization of the Fermentation Process and Aroma Profile of Carob Brandy. In: , et al. 10th Central European Congress on Food. CE-Food 2020. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-04797-8_7

Download citation