Skip to main content

The Teaching-Research Nexus of the Academic Profession in Finland, Estonia and Sweden

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Teaching and Research in the Knowledge-Based Society

Abstract

In this chapter, we discuss the teaching-research nexus in the higher education sectors in Estonia, Finland and Sweden. We analyse the extent to which the teaching-research nexus has changed in Finnish dual higher education system and, based on APIKS 2018 data, compare findings to the notions of the relationships of teaching-research nexus in Estonia and Sweden. We first look at how Finnish research and the teaching have changed between the CAP and APIKS surveys of 2008 and 2018, respectively. Second, we consider how the teaching-research nexus can be compared between these three countries. Estonia and Finland have binary higher education systems, and the Swedish university system has research universities and university colleges with an emphasis on teaching. Further, we outline the reasons why scholars moved into research. This phenomenon makes research- and teaching-focused higher education institutions convergent, and the chapter explores the change in teaching and research roles over time. The institutional and public expectations about the work in the academy are less focused on research as scholars’ use of their time suggests. Although the roles of the higher education sectors are different, in higher education sectors respondents considered that research activities reinforce teaching.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Aarrevaara, T., & Dobson, I. R. (2016). Merger mania? The Finnish higher education experience. In R. Pinheiro, L. Geschwind, & T. Aarrevaara (Eds.), Mergers in higher education. The experience form Northern Europe (Higher education dynamics) (Vol. 46, pp. 59–72). Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Aarrevaara, T., & Pietiläinen, V. (2021). The role of Finnish higher education in the innovation and research system. In T. Aarrevaara, M. Finkelstein, G. Jones, & J. Jung (Eds.), Universities and the knowledge society: The nexus of National Systems of innovation and higher education (Universities in the knowledge society. The changing academy: The changing academic profession in international comparative perspective) (Vol. 22). Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Aarrevaara, T., Dobson, I., & Postareff, L. (2013). The scholarly question in Finland – To teach or not to teach. In A. Arimoto, W. Cummings, J. Shin, & U. Teichler (Eds.), Teaching and research in contemporary higher education: Systems, activities, nexus and rewards (The changing academy: The changing academic profession in international comparative perspective) (Vol. 9). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • APIKS-IDB. The Academic Profession in the Knowledge-based Society (APIKS) survey 2018. International Database version 1.0 14 Oct 2020. https://www.ulapland.fi/APIKS

  • Beerkens, M. (2021). An evolution of performance data in higher education governance: A path towards a ‘big data’ era? Quality in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/13538322.2021.1951451

  • CAP. (2010). The changing academic profession survey. International data set of March 2010. University of Kassel.

    Google Scholar 

  • de Weert, E., & Kaap, H. (2014). The changing balance of teaching and research in the Dutch binary higher education system. In J. C. Shin et al. (Eds.), Teaching and research in contemporary higher education (The changing academy – The changing academic profession in international comparative perspective) (Vol. 9). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Diogo, S. (2020). Looking back in anger? Putting in perspective the implementation of the Bologna process in Finnish and Portuguese higher education systems. European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology, 7(2), 123–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/23254823.2019.1694420

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fumasoli, T., & Goastellec, G. (2015). Global models, disciplinary and local patterns in academic recruitment process. In T. Fumasoli, G. Goastellac, & B. M. Kehm (Eds.), Academic work and careers in Europe: Trends, challenges, perspectives (The changing academy: The changing academic profession in international comparative perspective) (Vol. 12). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Geschwind, L., Foss Hansen, H., Pinheiro, R., & Pulkkinen, K. (2019a). Governing performance in the Nordic universities: Where are we heading and what have we learned? In R. Pinheiro, L. Geschwind, H. F. Hansen, & K. Pulkkinen (Eds.), Reforms, organizational change and performance in higher education. Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Geschwind, L., Aarrevaara, T., Nordstrand Berg, L., & Lind, J. K. (2019b). The changing roles of academic leaders: Decision-making, power and performance. In R. Pinheiro, L. Geschwind, H. F. Hansen, & K. Pulkkinen (Eds.), Reforms, organizational change and performance in higher education. Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jongbloed, B., Frans Kaiser, F., & Westerheijden, D. F. (2020). Improving study success and diversity in Dutch higher education using performance agreements. Tertiary Education and Management, 26, 329–343.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lundborg, S., & Geschwind, L. (2021). The interplay of higher education, research, and innovation in Sweden. In T. Aarrevaara, M. Finkelstein, G. Jones, & J. Jung (Eds.), Universities and the knowledge society: The nexus of national systems of innovation and higher education (The changing academy: The changing academic profession in international comparative perspective) (Vol. 22). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macfarlane, B., & Burg, D. (2019). Legitimation, professionalisation and accountability in higher education studies: An intergenerational story. Studies in Higher Education, 44(3), 459–469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mägi, E., Kindsiko, E., & Beerkens, M. (2021). Academic profession for knowledge Society in Estonia. In T. Aarrevaara, M. Finkelstein, G. Jones, & J. Jung (Eds.), Universities and the knowledge society: The nexus of National Systems of innovation and higher education (The changing academy: The changing academic profession in international comparative perspective) (Vol. 22). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • OECD. (2020). OECD statistics on research and experimental development. Datasert science, technology and innovation. Data extracted on 28 Aug 2020 from UIS.Stat. http://data.uis.unesco.org/

  • Pinheiro, R., Geschwind, L., Hansen, H. F., & Pulkkinen, K. (Eds.). (2019). Reforms, organizational change and performance in higher education. Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith, S., & Walker, D. (2021). Scholarship and academic capitals: The boundaried nature of education-focused career tracks. Teaching in Higher Education. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562517.2021.1965570

  • Teichler, U., Arimoto, A., & Cummings, W. (Eds.). (2013). The changing academic profession: Major findings of a comparative survey (The changing academy: The changing academic profession in international comparative perspective) (Vol. 1). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tight, M. (2019). Tracking the scholarship of teaching and learning. Policy Reviews in Higher Education, 2(1), 61–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Whitley, R. (2007). Changing governance of the public sciences: The consequences of establishing research evaluation systems for knowledge production in different countries and scientific fields. In R. Whitley & J. Gläser (Eds.), The changing governance of the sciences: The advent of research evaluation systems (pp. 1–25). Springer.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Timo Aarrevaara .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Aarrevaara, T., Vasari, P., Tenhunen, V. (2022). The Teaching-Research Nexus of the Academic Profession in Finland, Estonia and Sweden. In: Huang, F., Aarrevaara, T., Teichler, U. (eds) Teaching and Research in the Knowledge-Based Society. The Changing Academy – The Changing Academic Profession in International Comparative Perspective, vol 23. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-04439-7_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-04439-7_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-031-04438-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-031-04439-7

  • eBook Packages: EducationEducation (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics