Skip to main content

Shallow Groundwater Quality Assessment for Irrigation Purposes Based on Irrigation Water Quality Criteria and Its Zoning with GIS in the Guenniche Plain (North Tunisia)

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Water-Energy-Nexus in the Ecological Transition

Abstract

Twenty (20) shallow wells were sampled during the dry season (October 2015) from the Guenniche plain (Northern Tunisia) and examined for their suitability for irrigation. The physicochemical analysis results are used to estimate 10 indexes: the sodium absorption ratio (SAR), percentage of sodium (Na %), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI), magnesium ratio (MR), residual sodium bicarbonate (SBC), salinity hazard (SH), potential salinity (PS), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), and Kelley’s Ratio (KR). The majority of the criteria (SAR, %Na, RSC, PI, KR, and RSBC) indicate that 100% of the studied water is ‘permissible’ for irrigation. But the rest of criteria show different results. The PS results classify 90% of the samples into the “moderate to satisfactory” category due to high chloride (Cl) values (average Cl value 589 mg.l−1) and SH index shows that 65% of groundwater samples are falling in the ‘doubtful’ category. The use of the IDW method for the spatial distribution of the criteria points out that central area and East of Guenniche plain are characterized by the low groundwater quality for irrigation purposes. The improvement of the efficiency of irrigation fertilization in those areas’ practices would improve the water quality of the Guenniche shallow aquifer.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • APHA.: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, vol. 20. American Public Health Association (APHA) (1998)

    Google Scholar 

  • Bauder, T.A., Waskom, R.M., Sutherland, P.L., Davis, J.G.: Irrigation Water Quality Criteria. Fact sheet No. 0.506 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  • CRDA of Bizerte: Commissariat Régional de Développement Agricole Rpp. Int (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  • DGRE.: Direction Générale de Ressources en Eau. Annuaire d’exploitation des nappes en Tunisie, annuaires piézométriques des nappes en Tunisie. Rapport Tunis (2006–2015)

    Google Scholar 

  • Doneen, L.D.: The influence of crop and soil on percolating water. In: Proceedings 11961 Biennial Conference on Groundwater Recharge, pp. 156–163 (1962)

    Google Scholar 

  • Doneen, L.D.: Notes on Water Quality in Agriculture. Published as a Water Science and Engineering Paper 4001, Department of Water Science and Engineering, University of California, Davis (1964)

    Google Scholar 

  • Eaton, F.M.: Significance of carbonate in irrigation water. Soil Sci. 69(2), 123–133 (1950)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization): Prospects for Food, Nutrition, Agriculture, and Major Commodity Groups. World agriculture: toward 2030–2050, Interim report. Global Perspective Studies Unit. FAO, Rome (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  • Gupta, I.C.: Concept of residual sodium carbonate in irrigation waters in relation to sodic hazard in irrigated soils. Curr. Agric. 7(3/4), 97–113 (1983)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • INM: Institut de la Météorologie Nationale (2006–2015). Tableaux climatologiques mensuels, station de Bizerte-El Alia (2006–2015)

    Google Scholar 

  • Jeong, C.H.: Effect of land use and urbanization on hydrochemistry and contamination of groundwater from Taejon area. Korea. J. Hydrol. 253, 194–210 (2001)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kelley, W.P.: Use of saline irrigation. Water Soil Sci 95(4), 355–391 (1963)

    Google Scholar 

  • Raghunath, H.M.: Ground Water, 2nd edn., p. 353. Wiley, New Delhi (1987)

    Google Scholar 

  • Rao, N.S.: Seasonal variation of groundwater quality in a part of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environ. Geol. 49, 413–429 (2005). http://www.ghanadistricts.com/reg-info.asp?RegionID=6

  • Richard, L.A.: Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline Alkali Soils. US Department of Agriculture, Hand book no. 60, p. 160 (1954)

    Google Scholar 

  • Singh, S.K., Srivastava, P.K., Singh, D., Han, D., Gautam, S.K., Pandey, A.C.: Modeling groundwater quality over a humid subtropical region using numerical indices, earth observation datasets, and X-ray diffraction technique: a case study of Allahabad district, India. Environ. Geochem. Health 37(1), 157–180 (2015) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-014-9638-z

  • Todd, D.K.: Groundwater hydrology, 2nd edn., p. 535. Wiley, New York (1980)

    Google Scholar 

  • Troudi, N., Hamzaoui-Azaza, F., Tzoraki, O., et al.: Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking purpose with special emphasis on salinity and nitrate contamination in the shallow aquifer of Guenniche (Northern Tunisia). Environ. Monit. Assess. 192, 641 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08584-9

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Troudi, N., Hamzaoui, F., Zammouri, M., Tzoraki, O.: Distribution of Trace Elements in the Shallow Aquifer of Guenniche (North Tunisia), pp. 113–116. Advances in Science, Technology and Innovation (2019) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01572-5_28

  • USSL: Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline and Alkaline Soils. United States Salinity Laboratory, US Department of Agriculture (1954)

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilcox, L.V.: Classification and use of Irrigation Water. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, p. 969 (1955)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nizar Troudi .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Troudi, N., Hamzaoui-Azaza, F., Tzoraki, O., Melki, F., Zammouri, M. (2022). Shallow Groundwater Quality Assessment for Irrigation Purposes Based on Irrigation Water Quality Criteria and Its Zoning with GIS in the Guenniche Plain (North Tunisia). In: Naddeo, V., Choo, KH., Ksibi, M. (eds) Water-Energy-Nexus in the Ecological Transition. Advances in Science, Technology & Innovation. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-00808-5_91

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics