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Revolutionary Roles: Classes and ‘Countries’

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Part of the Marx, Engels, and Marxisms book series (MAENMA)

Abstract

The first section of the Manifesto famously admires capitalism. Arguably of greater, but less remarked significance, this chapter contends, is the misplaced faith of Engels, in particular, and Marx in the revolutionary role of the bourgeoisie. This had the bourgeoisie not merely taking on absolute monarchy but also acting in the interests of workers. The bourgeoisie would prove self-interested and reformist at best. The chapter questions Marx’s no less important trust in the industrial proletariat, tiny in the German states in 1848, as Marx well knew, but neither revolutionary in spirit nor in practice. Conversely, the greater revolutionary significance of peasants was overlooked. The chapter queries Marx’s perplexing Manifesto decision that ‘the Communists turn their attention chiefly to Germany’, given the scathing stance of both Engels, notably, and Marx towards the German states, before, during and after the outbreak of revolution. In contrast, heavily industrialised England, where the stakes were far higher at Kennington Common in April 1848 than in Berlin in March 1848, and whose Chartists were championed by Engels, in particular, but also by Marx, barely features in the Manifesto.

Keywords

  • Bourgeoisie
  • Industrial proletariat
  • Peasants
  • German states
  • England

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Stedman Jones, Manifesto Introduction, 11, 5.

  2. 2.

    Manifesto of the Communist Party. MECW 6, 485. Engels writes in a note to the 1888 English edition of the Manifesto, ‘by bourgeoisie is meant the class of modern Capitalists, owners of the means of social production and employers of wage-labour’. MECW 6, 482; and in The Constitutional Question in Germany, ‘the decisive section of the German bourgeoisie are the factory owners’. MECW 6, 86.

  3. 3.

    Joseph Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1947), 7.

  4. 4.

    Hannah Arendt, The Recovery of the Public World, ed. Melvin Hill (New York: St Martin’s Press, 1979), 334–5.

  5. 5.

    Mandel, The Formation of the Economic Thought of Karl Marx: 1843 to Capital, 56.

  6. 6.

    Karl Heinzen, Die Helden des teutschen Kommunismus (Bern: Verlag von Jenni, Sohn, 1848), 22.

  7. 7.

    Manifesto of the Communist Party. MECW 6, 486, 519.

  8. 8.

    The Constitutional Question in Germany. MECW 6, 75–6.

  9. 9.

    Stedman Jones regards the attack on True Socialism as both sectarian and quite disproportionate. Stedman Jones, Manifesto Introduction, 271.

  10. 10.

    The Manifesto of the Communist Party. MECW 6, 511–13.

  11. 11.

    In the manuscripts now known as The German Ideology, Marx decided to add a second volume, completed by early June 1846 and running to some 30,000 words, specifically to attack True Socialism. Only Chapter IV of Volume II, The Historiography of True Socialism, was published around this time, in Das Westphälische Dampfboot in August and September 1847. Engels was despatched to Paris in mid-August 1846 to try and wrestle the initiative away from Grün, and from January to April 1847, he wrote his own lengthy essay on The True Socialists. Marx published his Declaration Against Karl Grün in April 1847.

  12. 12.

    The Manifesto of the Communist Party. MECW 6, 511–12.

  13. 13.

    The Constitutional Question in Germany. MECW 6, 85–6.

  14. 14.

    The Movements of 1847. MECW 6, 522.

  15. 15.

    As noted in Chap. 2, this can be seen from Engels’s qualifying comment that King Friedrick Wilhelm IV may have breathing space until 1849 when ‘the United Diet will have to be convened … whether the king wants it or not’, triggering his resignation. The Movements of 1847. MECW 6, 522.

  16. 16.

    Engels again parts company on timing, suggesting ‘in a few months’ time’, rather than ‘immediately following’, as Marx predicts. Engels to Marx, 8 March 1848. MECW 38, 160; Manifesto of the Communist Party, MECW 6, 519.

  17. 17.

    Moralising Criticism and Critical Morality. MECW 6, 332.

  18. 18.

    The Movements of 1847. Engels contradicts his own suggestion of a proletarian revolution in Germany ‘in a very short time’ by also writing in this piece that the bourgeoisie ‘will at most win a few years of troubled enjoyment’. MECW 6, 528–9.

  19. 19.

    Manifesto of the Communist Party, MECW 6, 493.

  20. 20.

    The Constitutional Question in Germany. MECW 6, 79–80.

  21. 21.

    Moralising Criticism and Critical Morality. MECW 6, 333.

  22. 22.

    Hetherington et al., Rotten House, 3.

  23. 23.

    Valentin, Geschichte der deutschen Revolution, 1848–1849, v1, 355.

  24. 24.

    Schmidt et al., Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution 1848–1849, 113–14.

  25. 25.

    The Berlin Debate on the Revolution. MECW 7, 74.

  26. 26.

    The Suppression of the Clubs in Stuttgart and Heidelberg. MECW 7, 248.

  27. 27.

    The Victory of the Counter-Revolution in Vienna. MECW 7, 504.

  28. 28.

    The Bourgeoisie and the Counter-Revolution. MECW 8, 162.

  29. 29.

    Marx and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung (1848–1849). MECW 26, 122.

  30. 30.

    Moralising Criticism and Critical Morality. MECW 6, 333.

  31. 31.

    Cited in Helga Grebing, Der deutsche Sonderweg in Europa, 1806–1945 (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer, 1986), 90.

  32. 32.

    Franz Wigard, ed., Stenographischer Bericht über die Verhandlungen der deutschen constituierenden Nationalversammlung (Frankfurt-am-Main: Johann David Sauerländer, 1848), v1, 1417, 381.

  33. 33.

    Verhandlungen der Versammlung zur Vereinbarung der Preussischen Staats-Verfassung (Berlin: Verlag der Deckerschen Geheimen Ober-Hofbuchdruckerei, 1848), v1, 166.

  34. 34.

    Wal Suchting, “What is Living and What is Dead in the Communist Manifesto” in Cowling, ed., Communist Manifesto, 158.

  35. 35.

    Marx and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung (1848–1849). MECW 26, 121.

  36. 36.

    Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right. MECW 3, 186.

  37. 37.

    Werner Conze, “Proletariat, Pöbel, Pauperismus” in Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 2004), v5, 2004, 53.

  38. 38.

    The Condition of the Working-Class in England. MECW 4, 304.

  39. 39.

    Conze, Proletariat, Pöbel, Pauperismus, 54, footnote 119.

  40. 40.

    Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith. MECW 6, 100; Principles of Communism, MECW 6, 341.

  41. 41.

    Manifesto of the Communist Party. MECW 6, 494.

  42. 42.

    Contribution to Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Law. MECW 3, 187.

  43. 43.

    Draft of a Communist Confession of Faith. MECW 6, 99.

  44. 44.

    Joel Mokyr, The Enlightened Economy, Britain and the Industrial Revolution 1700–1850 (London: Penguin, 2009), 347. Eric Evans concurs, ‘until at least 1850, large-scale factory production was very much the exception rather than the rule’. Eric Evans, The Forging of the Modern State: Early Industrial Britain, 1783–c.1870 (London: Routledge, 2019), 145.

  45. 45.

    Engels to Correspondence Committee, 16 September 1846. MECW 38, 66–7.

  46. 46.

    Stadelmann, Das Jahr 1848 und die deutsche Geschichte, 28.

  47. 47.

    Taylor adds that ‘in 1846 London alone consumed more coal than Prussia raised’. Taylor, German History, 72.

  48. 48.

    Paul Louis offers more ambitious estimates on French coal production, less ambitious ones on steam power. Paul Louis, Histoire de la classe ouvrière en France de la revolution à nos jours (Paris: M. Rivière, 1927), 55–6.

  49. 49.

    Michael Mulhall, The Dictionary of Statistics (London: George Routledge, 1892), 121–2, 157, 333, 444–6, 545.

  50. 50.

    Wolfgang Schieder, “Die Rolle der deutschen Arbeiter in der Revolution” in Dieter Langewiesche, ed., Die Deutsche Revolution von 1848/49 (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1983), 328.

  51. 51.

    Obermann, Zur Klassenstruktur und zur Sozialen Lage der Bevölkerung in Preussen, 81–2.

  52. 52.

    Cited in Sperber, Rhineland Radicals, 14.

  53. 53.

    Sigmann, Eighteen-fortyeight, 23.

  54. 54.

    Obermann, Zur Klassenstruktur und zur Sozialen Lage der Bevölkerung in Preussen, 85.

  55. 55.

    Carl Dieterici, ed., Mittheilungen des statistischen Bureau’s in Berlin I, no. 5 (Berlin: Mittler, 1849), 75.

  56. 56.

    Gerd Hardach, “Klassen und Schichten in Deutschland 1848–1970” in Geschichte und Gesellschaft 3, H4, 509–10.

  57. 57.

    Stadelmann, Soziale und Politische Geschichte der Revolution von 1848, 9, 199.

  58. 58.

    McLellan, Manifesto Introduction, xvii.

  59. 59.

    Friedrich Wilhelm von Reden, Erwerbs- und Verkehrsstatistik des Königstaats Preussen in vergleichender Darstellung, v2 (Darmstadt: Jonghaus, 1853), 1037.

  60. 60.

    Schraepler, Handwerkerbunde und Arbeitervereine, 239.

  61. 61.

    Becker, Marx und Engels in Köln, 1848–1849, 29–30.

  62. 62.

    Schieder, Die Rolle der deutschen Arbeiter in der Revolution, 326.

  63. 63.

    Thomas Nipperdey, Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck, 1800–1866 (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1996), 171.

  64. 64.

    Stadelmann, Soziale und Politische Geschichte der Revolution von 1848, 9, 10.

  65. 65.

    David Fernbach, The Revolutions of 1848, 26.

  66. 66.

    Schieder, Die Rolle der deutschen Arbeiter in der Revolution, 326, 328.

  67. 67.

    Blumenberg, Karl Marx: An Illustrated History, 78.

  68. 68.

    Manifesto of the Communist Party. MECW 6, 519.

  69. 69.

    Marx and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung. MECW 26, 122.

  70. 70.

    Engels to Marx, mid-November–December 1846. MECW 38, 92.

  71. 71.

    Hunt, The Frock-Coated Communist, 104.

  72. 72.

    Capital. MECW 35, 9.

  73. 73.

    The statistics ‘industry’ in Germany only really took off in mid-century—Dieterici’s first Mittheilungen des statistichen Bureau’s in Berlin is dated 1849, the same Bureau’s Tabellen und amtliche Nachrichten über den Preussischen Staat für das Jahr 1849 appeared from 1851. Of the sixth Tabellen und amtliche Nachrichten, devoted to ‘manufacturing plants and factory enterprises’ in Prussia, Dieterici comments that ‘the material is so rich that it wasn’t possible for me to publish it in one volume’. The first volume, for 1849, runs to no less than 995 pages, but is dated 1851, the fourth, 1853.

  74. 74.

    Engel was head of the Prussian Statistical Bureau from 1860 to 1882 and published his very detailed Zeitschrift des Königlich Preussischen Statistischen Bureaus series from 1861.

  75. 75.

    Gerhard Schaub. “Statistik und Agitation. Eine neue Quelle zu Büchners Hessischem Landboten” in Geist und Zeichen, Festschrift für Arthur Henkel, ed. Herbert Anton, Bernhard Gajek, Peter Pfaff (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1976), 351–75.

  76. 76.

    Cited in Hunt, The Frock-Coated Communist, 116.

  77. 77.

    The Protectionists, the Free Traders and the Working Class. MECW 6, 279. Marx also credits Gülich in the 1873 Second German Edition of Capital: ‘Gustav von Gülich in his Historical Description of Commerce, Industry [and Agriculture] &c., especially in the first two volumes published in 1830, has examined at length the historical circumstances that prevented, in Germany, the development of the capitalist mode of production, and consequently the development, in that country, of modern bourgeois society’. MECW 35, 13.

  78. 78.

    Manifesto of the Communist Party. MECW 6, 509–10.

  79. 79.

    Manifesto of the Communist Party. MECW 6, 509.

  80. 80.

    MEGA2, IV/6, passim.

  81. 81.

    Marx could draw on a Prussian parliamentary report: Prussian Financial Administration under Bodelschwingh and Co. MECW 8, 379–89, 418–20.

  82. 82.

    Hetherington et al., Rotten House, 6, 18, 6–7.

  83. 83.

    The Constitutional Question in Germany. MECW 6, 78, 83–4.

  84. 84.

    In the view of Schmidt, Förder and Kandel. Mayer sees Engels as an alternative possibility. Thematically, Engels looks more likely, stylistically, Wolff (who certainly wrote the separate Political and Social Survey in this League journal). Gustav Mayer, Friedrich Engels in seiner Frühzeit (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1934), 269; Walter Schmidt, Wilhelm Wolff, Kampfgefährte und Freund von Marx und Engels, 1846–1864 (Berlin: SED-Dietz Verlag, 1979), 97–8, 425; Herwig Förder, Marx und Engels am Vorabend der Revolution (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1960), 193.

  85. 85.

    Ryazanov, Introduction to the Communist Manifesto, 311.

  86. 86.

    The Central Authority to the League. MECW 6, 603.

  87. 87.

    Auguste Cornu, Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels, Leur vie et leur oeuvre, v4 (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1970), 12; Schraepler, Handwerkerbunde und Arbeitervereine, 10.

  88. 88.

    Fernbach, The Revolutions of 1848, 26.

  89. 89.

    Carl Dieterici. Tabellen und amtliche Nachrichten über den Preussischen Staat für das Jahr 1849, v4 (Berlin: Hayn, 1853), 183.

  90. 90.

    Dieterici, Tabellen, v1, 416.

  91. 91.

    Hess’s father was a Cologne sugar refiner.

  92. 92.

    Reden, Erwerbs- und Verkehrsstatistik des Königstaats Preussen, 1037.

  93. 93.

    Sperber, Rhineland Radicals, 23, 37.

  94. 94.

    Becker, Marx und Engels in Köln, 1848–1849, 13.

  95. 95.

    Pierre Ayçoberry, Cologne entre Napoléon et Bismarck; la croissance d’une ville rhénane (Éditions Aubier-Montaigne: Paris, 1981), 145, 160, 147.

  96. 96.

    Becker, Marx und Engels in Köln, 1848–1849, 13.

  97. 97.

    Sperber, Rhineland Radicals, 24–5.

  98. 98.

    Sperber, Rhineland Radicals, 22.

  99. 99.

    Siemann, The German Revolution of 1848–49, 57–8.

  100. 100.

    Becker, Marx und Engels in Köln, 1848–1849, 16.

  101. 101.

    The same day that Austrian Chancellor Klemens von Metternich was forced to resign.

  102. 102.

    Stadelmann, Soziale und Politische Geschichte der Revolution von 1848, 52, 53.

  103. 103.

    Joseph Hansen, ed., Rheinische Briefe und Akten zur Geschichte der politischen Bewegung 1830–1850, v2 (Köln-Bonn: Peter-Hanstein, 1976), 11, 17, 64, 1.

  104. 104.

    Schmidt et al., Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution, 80.

  105. 105.

    Schmidt et al., Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution, 86; Siemann, The German Revolution of 1848–49, 64.

  106. 106.

    Schmidt et al., Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution, 91; Siemann, The German Revolution of 1848–49, 65.

  107. 107.

    Stadelmann, Soziale und Politische Geschichte der Revolution von 1848, 57.

  108. 108.

    Stadelmann, Soziale und Politische Geschichte der Revolution von 1848, 57.

  109. 109.

    Sperber, Rhineland Radicals, 161.

  110. 110.

    Sperber, Rhineland Radicals, 197.

  111. 111.

    Stadelmann, Das Jahr 1848 und die deutsche Geschichte, 28.

  112. 112.

    Leon Trotsky, “Ninety Years of the Manifesto”, in The New International IV, no. 2 (February 1938), 63.

  113. 113.

    Raymond Aron, The Opium of the Intellectuals (London: Secker & Warburg, 1957), 70–1.

  114. 114.

    Taylor, Manifesto Introduction, 19.

  115. 115.

    Alvin Gouldner, “Artisans and Intellectuals in the German Revolution of 1848” in Theory and Society 12, no. 4 (July 1983), 522.

  116. 116.

    Manifesto of the Communist Party. MECW 6, 494.

  117. 117.

    Schraepler, Handwerkerbunde und Arbeitervereine, 171.

  118. 118.

    Der Bauernstand und did politische Bewegung. DBZ, 1 August 1847.

  119. 119.

    Koch, Die Agrarrevolution in Deutschland 1848, 369.

  120. 120.

    Schieder, Die Rolle der deutschen Arbeiter in der Revolution, 324.

  121. 121.

    Sperber, The European Revolutions, 1848–1851, 124–6.

  122. 122.

    Cobbett, “To the Readers”, Political Register 69, no. 8 (February 20 1830), 242.

  123. 123.

    Ian Dyck, “William Cobbett and the Rural Radical Platform” in Social History 18, no. 2 (May 1993), 189–190.

  124. 124.

    Aron, The Opium of the Intellectuals, 91–2.

  125. 125.

    Hans-Joachim Behr, “Revolution auf dem Lande”, in Westfälische Zeitschrift 150, (2000), 45.

  126. 126.

    Koch, Die Agrarrevolution in Deutschland 1848, 368; Wilhelm Riehl, Die Bürgerliche Gesellschaft (Stuttgart: Verlag der Cotta’schen Buchhandlung, 1897), 89.

  127. 127.

    Taylor, Manifesto Introduction, 26.

  128. 128.

    Sigmann, Eighteen-fortyeight, 127.

  129. 129.

    Koch, Die Agrarrevolution in Deutschland 1848, 369.

  130. 130.

    Schmidt et al., Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution 1848–1849, 70.

  131. 131.

    Eric Hobsbawm, Age of Capital (London: Abacus, 2012), 28.

  132. 132.

    Schmidt et al., Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution 1848–1849, 109.

  133. 133.

    Stadelmann, Soziale und Politische Geschichte der Revolution von 1848, 79.

  134. 134.

    Schieder, Die Rolle der deutschen Arbeiter in der Revolution, 324; Siemann, The German Revolution of 1848–49, 181.

  135. 135.

    Siemann amends the earlier view, drawing on new research. The German Revolution of 1848–49, 157; see also his “The Revolutions of 1848–49 and the Persistence of the Old Regime in Germany (1848–50)” in John Breuilly, ed., Nineteenth-Century Germany: Politics, Culture and Society, 1780–1918 (London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2020), 109.

  136. 136.

    Patow’s Redemption Memorandum. MECW 7, 117.

  137. 137.

    Marx argues that the bill in practice by no means proposed the abolition of feudal dues, without compensation.

  138. 138.

    The Bill Proposing the Abolition of Feudal Obligations. MECW 7, 293, 294–5.

  139. 139.

    The Bill Proposing the Abolition of Feudal Obligations. MECW 7, 295.

  140. 140.

    The Uprising in Frankfurt. MECW 7, 444.

  141. 141.

    Seine and Loire. MECW 7, 519, 523.

  142. 142.

    Draper, The Adventures of the Communist Manifesto, 273–4.

  143. 143.

    Demands of the Communist Party in Germany. MECW 7, 4.

  144. 144.

    Eric Hobsbawm, How to Change the World (London: Abacus, 2014), 64.

  145. 145.

    Taylor, Manifesto Introduction, 25.

  146. 146.

    Footnote 347. MECW 7, 650.

  147. 147.

    Cited in Dieter Dowe, Aktion und Organisation: Arbeiterbewegung, sozialistische Bewegung und kommunistische Bewegung in der preußischen Rheinprovinz, 1820–1852 (Hannover: Verlag für Literatur und Zeitgeschehen), 183.

  148. 148.

    ZAV, 27 August 1848.

  149. 149.

    Marx to Lassalle, 13 November 1848. MECW 38, 180.

  150. 150.

    Tax Refusal and the Countryside. MECW 8, 40.

  151. 151.

    Sperber, Rhineland Radicals, 325–6, 336; Joachim Strey and Gerhard Winkler, Marx und Engels 1848/49 (Berlin: SED-Dietz Verlag, 1972), 138.

  152. 152.

    Becker, Marx und Engels in Köln, 1848–1849, 158.

  153. 153.

    Schmidt, Wilhelm Wolff, 196.

  154. 154.

    The ‘Silesian Milliard’ was Wolff’s estimate of how much the ‘robber knights’ had underpaid in tax in the preceding 20 years, a figure he put at 300 million Thalers, being an equivalent echo of the 1000 million francs—or milliard—extracted from ‘the French peasant’. Wilhelm Wolff, Die Schlesische Milliarde (Hottingen-Zürich: Verlag der Volksbuchhandlung, 1886), 30. Engels provides a separate commentary on the milliard background and calculation. On the History of the Prussian Peasants. MECW 26, 348–351.

  155. 155.

    Ernst Huber, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789, v1 (Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag, 1957), 213.

  156. 156.

    Dieterici, Mittheilungen des Statistischen Bureaus in Berlin I, 7, 1849, 104.

  157. 157.

    Schmidt, Wilhelm Wolff, 207.

  158. 158.

    About five hectares or ca. 12 acres.

  159. 159.

    The argument that the Count should be paying, proportionate to his income, 7000 Thalers annually in Class Tax makes arithmetic sense if the ‘rustic tenant’ is earning ca. 100 Thalers annually. Wolff, Die Schlesische Milliarde, 32.

  160. 160.

    Wilhelm Wolff was a rarity in the Marx/Engels circle, remaining a respected loyalist from first encounter, in April 1846, to his death in 1864. He attracts corresponding testimonials from both Marx and Engels. The former dedicates Capital to ‘my unforgettable friend, intrepid, faithful, noble protagonist of the proletariat’, the latter, in his 1876 tribute to Wolff (which covers the 1840s’ revolutionary period in detail), describes Wolff’s ‘passionate hatred of all oppression of the masses … unshakeable strength of character, absolute unquestionable reliability’. Capital. MECW 35, 5; Wilhelm Wolff. MECW 24, 131.

  161. 161.

    Wilhelm Wolff. MECW 24, 146.

  162. 162.

    Schmidt, Wilhelm Wolff, 207.

  163. 163.

    Schmidt, Wilhelm Wolff, 199, 203. Strey and Winkler make similar claims: ‘it’s clear that the NRZ in this current phase of preparation for the social-republican revolution sought to establish the alliance with all the peasants’. Strey and Winkler, Marx und Engels 1848/49, 270.

  164. 164.

    MEW 19, 552.

  165. 165.

    Marx had a hand in working up with Wolff a 12 April 1849 piece on Land Tax.

  166. 166.

    Reddick, Georg Büchner, 167–8.

  167. 167.

    Ay, Das Frag- und Antwortbüchlein von Wilhelm Schulz, 762.

  168. 168.

    Ian Dyck, Introduction to Rural Rides (London: Penguin Books, 2001), viii.

  169. 169.

    Forman, ed., The Prose Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley, 109.

  170. 170.

    Hobsbawm, Manifesto Introduction, 4.

  171. 171.

    Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany. MECW 11, 21.

  172. 172.

    Revolution in Paris. MECW 6, 558.

  173. 173.

    The Communists and Karl Heinzen. MECW 6, 293.

  174. 174.

    Principles of Communism. MECW 6, 352.

  175. 175.

    The Débat Social on the Democratic Association. MECW 6, 538.

  176. 176.

    Three New Constitutions. MECW 6, 543.

  177. 177.

    Three New Constitutions. MECW 6, 544.

  178. 178.

    This chimes with Engels’s scepticism in his January 1848 piece, The Movements of 1847, that revolution in Prussia was as imminent as Marx maintains in the Manifesto, although at this specific point, Engels’s timetable otherwise of 1849 (or later) seems to have foreshortened. See Chap. 2.

  179. 179.

    Engels to Marx, 8 March 1848. MECW 38, 159–60.

  180. 180.

    Engels to Marx, 18 March 1848. MECW 38, 165.

  181. 181.

    Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Germany. MECW 11, 10.

  182. 182.

    The Bourgeoisie and the Counter-Revolution. MECW 8, 159, 161–2.

  183. 183.

    As discussed in Chap. 2.

  184. 184.

    David Ryazanov, Marx and Engels, An Introduction to their Lives and Work (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973), 57.

  185. 185.

    Laski, Communist Manifesto, 59.

  186. 186.

    Taylor, Manifesto Introduction, 35.

  187. 187.

    Fernbach, The Revolutions of 1848, 25.

  188. 188.

    Henry Weisser, “Chartism in 1848: Reflections on a Non-Revolution” in Albion: A Quarterly Journal Concerned with British Studies 13, no. 1 (Spring 1981), 12, 14, 22, 25.

  189. 189.

    Boris Nicolaevsky, “Toward a History of the Communist League, 1847–1852” in International Review of Social History 1, no. 2 (1956), 242.

  190. 190.

    On the History of the Communist League. MECW 26, 313.

  191. 191.

    On the History of the Communist League. MECW 26, 316.

  192. 192.

    The Condition of the Working-Class in England. MECW 4, 518.

  193. 193.

    Malcolm Thomis and Peter Holt, Threats of Revolution in Britain 1789–1848 (London: Macmillan, 1977), 128.

  194. 194.

    Cited in Alan Sked, “Great Britain and the Continental Revolutions of 1848”, in An Anglo-German Dialogue: The Munich Lectures on the History of International Relations, eds. Adolf Birke, Magnus Brechtken, Alaric Searle (Munich: KG Saur Verlag, 2000), 43.

  195. 195.

    In south-east London.

  196. 196.

    Friedrich Lessner, Vor 1848 und Nachher (Deutsche Worte, no. 3: Wien, 1898), 110.

  197. 197.

    John Saville, 1848: The British State and the Chartist Movement (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 120, 102–5, 111, 106, 108, 114.

  198. 198.

    Dorothy Thompson, The Chartists (London: Temple Smith, 1984), 325.

  199. 199.

    Saville, 1848, 109.

  200. 200.

    Cited in Sked, Great Britain and the Continental Revolutions of 1848, 44.

  201. 201.

    Schmidt et al., Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution 1848–1849, 87, 89.

  202. 202.

    Fernbach, The Revolutions of 1848, 25–6, 21–2.

  203. 203.

    The Condition of the Working-Class in England. MECW 4, 517.

  204. 204.

    Stathis Kouvelakis, Philosophy and Revolution, From Kant to Marx (London: Verso, 2003), 224.

  205. 205.

    Consequences of a Revolution of the Proletariat, DBZ, 14 October 1847. Hess, Schriften, 430.

  206. 206.

    On Poland. MECW 6, 389.

  207. 207.

    Saville, 1848, 119–20. Rudé chooses to invert this logic, suggesting the April 1848 demonstration was an ‘anti-climax artificially stimulated more by political events in Europe than by the situation in England itself’, cited in Sked, “Great Britain and the Continental Revolutions of 1848”, 43.

  208. 208.

    Sked, Great Britain and the Continental Revolutions of 1848, 44.

  209. 209.

    Saville, 1848, 120.

  210. 210.

    Dorothy Thompson, The Chartists, 327.

  211. 211.

    Saville, 1848, 140, 132.

  212. 212.

    Eric Hobsbawm, Revolutionaries (London: Abacus, 2007), 141.

  213. 213.

    Gareth Stedman Jones, Languages of Class: Studies in English Working Class History, 1832–1982 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 71.

  214. 214.

    Cited in Philip Waller, Town, City and Nation: England, 1850–1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983), 116.

  215. 215.

    Engels to Emil Blank, 15 April 1848. MECW 38, 171. Lord Palmerston had his third period as British Foreign Secretary from 1846–1851.

  216. 216.

    The Downfall of the Camphausen Government. MECW 7, 108.

  217. 217.

    The Kölnische Zeitung on the State of Affairs in England. MECW 7, 297.

  218. 218.

    Saville, 1848, 125.

  219. 219.

    The Frankfurter Oberpostamts-Zeitung and the Viennese Revolution. MECW 7, 473.

  220. 220.

    The Revolutionary Movement. MECW 8, 214–15.

  221. 221.

    Terrell Carver, Marx and Engels: the Intellectual Relationship (Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books, 1983), 86.

  222. 222.

    Kouvelakis, Philosophy and Revolution, 224.

  223. 223.

    Saville, 1848, 15–27.

  224. 224.

    Kouvelakis, Philosophy and Revolution, 226.

  225. 225.

    There are other, very incidental allusions to England by Marx. See Chap. 2.

  226. 226.

    See Chap. 2.

  227. 227.

    MEGA2, I/7, 889.

  228. 228.

    MECW 7, XX.

  229. 229.

    Schmidt et al., Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution 1848–1849, 64.

  230. 230.

    MECW 7, XX.

  231. 231.

    Schmidt et al., Illustrierte Geschichte der deutschen Revolution 1848–1849, 178.

  232. 232.

    Becker, Marx und Engels in Köln, 1848–1849, 80.

  233. 233.

    The insurrection, which ran for four days, saw 3000 Viennese citizens and 1300 soldiers killed, with 2400 arrests and 25 executions. Gabriel, Love and Capital, 156–7.

  234. 234.

    The Vienna Insurrection. MECW 11, 54.

  235. 235.

    Appeal of the Democratic Congress to the German People. MECW 7, 490.

  236. 236.

    Committee Meeting of the CWA, 6 November 1848. MECW 7, 598.

  237. 237.

    The Prussian Warrant for the Arrest of Kossuth. MECW 8, 269–270; Hungary. MECW 9, 463.

  238. 238.

    The Third Party in the Alliance. MECW 9, 395. This is but one instance of Engels’s Rhinelander anti-Prussianism. His 1885 History of the Prussian Peasants provides a choice footnote: ‘Prussian perfidy is fathomless’. MECW 26, 347.

  239. 239.

    Army Order, Election Candidates, Semi-official Comments on Prussian Ambiguity. MECW 7, 435.

  240. 240.

    The Danish Armistice. MECW 7, 414.

  241. 241.

    The Danish-Prussian Armistice. MECW 7, 421.

  242. 242.

    The Danish-Prussian Armistice. MECW 7, 424–5.

  243. 243.

    Decision of the Mass Meeting. MECW 7, 588.

  244. 244.

    Stefan Kieniewicz, “1848 in Polen” in Die Europäischen Revolutionen von 1848, eds. Horst Stuke and Wilfried Forstmann (Königstein im Taunus: Athenäum Verlag, 1979), 163.

  245. 245.

    Sperber, The European Revolutions, 1848–1851, 135–6.

  246. 246.

    After a career of incompetence, Ramorino was executed in 1849 for disobeying orders before the Battle of Novara. At his own request, he was allowed to command the firing squad that shot him.

  247. 247.

    Reddick, Georg Büchner, 189.

  248. 248.

    German Foreign Policy and the Latest Events in Prague. MECW 7, 212.

  249. 249.

    Herres and Melis suggest that the NRZ’s political programme of a single, indivisible, democratic German republic, and war with Russia, including the restoration of Poland ‘were in no way pursued with the thoroughness and resoluteness implied by Engels’. MEGA2, I/7, 905.

  250. 250.

    Marx and the Neue Rheinische Zeitung (1848–1849). MECW 26, 127, 126.

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Ireland, D. (2022). Revolutionary Roles: Classes and ‘Countries’. In: The Communist Manifesto in the Revolutionary Politics of 1848. Marx, Engels, and Marxisms. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-99464-8_4

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