Skip to main content

The Environmental Analysis of a Product Manufactured with the Use of an Additive Technology

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Advances in Manufacturing III (MANUFACTURING 2022)


The use of additive technologies is one of the key elements of the Industry 4.0 structure. An unquestionable advantage of additive manufacturing is the speed of introducing changes in computer models, and thus the ease of product customization. Examples of such products are orthoses, prostheses and exoskeletons, which are personalized depending on the requirements of the person for whom they are intended. Despite the widespread use of additive manufacturing, mainly for rapid prototyping, there is relatively little information about the environmental impact of this process. This impact depends on the choice of 3D printer and the filament used in production. This paper attempts to conduct a comparative life cycle environmental analysis of two alternative versions of a product that was manufactured with the use of additive technologies. The structure of the product was identical and the research experiments consisted in changing the materials used in the additive manufacturing (from PLA to ABS). The effects of these changes on the environmental factors were observed and a direct comparison of the effects in the different factors was made. SimaPro software with implemented databases was used for the analysis. Missing information on the environmental impact of additive manufacturing of PLA and ABS parts was taken from the literature for the purpose of the study. The results of the research are presented in the paper.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. WHO health an climate change survey report. Accessed 14 Oct 2021

  2. Rojek, I., Macko, M., Kopowski, J., Mikołajewski, D.: Reverse engineering as a way to save environment with-in patient-tailored production of assistive technology devices – based on own hand exoskeleton case study. In: Machado, J., Soares, F., Trojanowska, J., Ottaviano, E. (eds.) ICIENG 2021. LNME, pp. 82–91. Springer, Cham (2022).

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  3. Rojek, I., Mikołajewski, D., Dostatni, E., Macko, M.: AI-optimized technological aspects of the material used in 3D printing processes for selected medical applications. Materials 13(23), 5437 (2020)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Stężowski, J.: Sustainability as an integral part of the fourth industrial revolution. Accessed 14 Oct 2021

  5. Sustainability and Goals of Sustainable Development. Accessed 12 Sept 2021

  6. Feng, S.C., Joung, C.: A measurement infrastructure for sustainable manufacturing. Int. J. Sustain. Manuf. 2(2/3), 204–221 (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Czaplicka-Kolarz, K., Kruczek, M.: The concept of eco-efficiency in sustainable production management. In: Scientific Papers of Silesian University of Technology. Organization and Management Series, vol. 63, pp. 59–71 (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Valdivia, S., Ugaya, C.M.L., Sonnemann, G., Hildenbrand, J.: Towards a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: Making Informed Choices on Products. UNEP, France (2011)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Karwasz, A., Dostatni, E., Diakun, J., Grajewski, D., Wichniarek, R., Stachura, M.: Estimating the cost of product recycling with the use of ecodesign support system. Manag. Prod. Eng. Rev. 7(1), 33–39 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Dostatni, E., Rojek, I., Hamrol, A.: The use of machine learning method in concurrent ecodesign of products and technological processes. In: Hamrol, A., Ciszak, O., Legutko, S., Jurczyk, M. (eds.) Advances in Manufacturing. LNME, pp. 321–330. Springer, Cham (2018).

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  11. Karwasz, A., Osiński, F.: Literature review on emissions from additive manufacturing by FDM method and their impact on human health. Manag. Prod. Eng. Rev. 11(3), 65–73 (2020)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Żukowska, M., Górski, F., Bromiński, G.: Rapid manufacturing and virtual prototyping of pre-surgery aids. In: Lhotska, L., Sukupova, L., Lacković, I., Ibbott, G.S. (eds.) World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering 2018. IP, vol. 68/3, pp. 399–403. Springer, Singapore (2019).

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  13. Nomiri, S., Hoshyar, R., Ambrosino, C., et al.: A minireview of bisphenol A (BPA) effects on cancerrelated cellular signaling pathways. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 26(9), 8459–8467 (2019)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Wojtyła, S., Klama, P., Baran, T.: Is 3D printing safe? Analysis of the thermal treatment of thermoplastics: ABS, PLA, PET and nylon. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 14(6), 80–85 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Górski, F., Osiński, F., Wierzbicka, N., Żukowska, M.: Environmental impact of additive manufacturing of individualized orthopaedic supplies. In: Tonkonogyi, V., et al. (eds.) Advanced Manufacturing Processes II, pp. 384–393. Springer, Ukraine (2021)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  16. Cha, H.Y., et al.: Ankle-foot orthosis made by 3D printing technique and automated design software. Appl. Bionics Biomech. 2017(1–3), 1–6 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Stabile, L., Scungio, M., Buonanno, G., Arpino, F., Ficco, G.: Airborne particle emission of a commercial 3D printer: the effect of filament material and printing temperature. Indoor Air 27(2), 398–408 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Steinle, P.: Characterization of emissions from a desktop 3D printer and indoor air measurements in office settings. J. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 13(2), 121–132 (2016)

    Article  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  19. Zhang, B., Kowsari, K., Serjouei, A., Dunn, M.L., Ge, Q.: Reprocessable thermosets for sustainable three-dimensional printing. Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1–7 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  20. Cecchi, T., de Carolis, C.: Life cycle assessment. In: Biobased Products from Food Sector Waste, pp. 365–377. Springer, Cham (2021).

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  21. Curran, M.A.: Life Cycle Assessment: Principles and Practice. National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Cincinnati (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  22. Kronenberg, J., Bergier, T.: Challenges of Sustainable Development in Poland. Fundacja Sendzimira, Cracow (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  23. Wach, A.K.: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as the basis for computer-assisted product evaluation. In: Conference Materials of the 2nd National Science and Technology Conference “Ecology in Electronics”, Warsaw (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  24. Guinee, J.B., et al.: Life cycle assessment: past, present, and future. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45(1), 90–96 (2011)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. ISO 14040:2006 Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Principles and framework

    Google Scholar 

  26. Dostatni, E.: Ecological product design in 3D CAD environment with the use of agent technology. Wydawnictwo Politechniki Poznańskiej, Poznan (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  27. Silva, D., et al.: How important is the LCA software tool you choose? Comparative results from GaBi, openLCA, SimaPro and Umberto. In: Proceedings of the VII Conferencia Internacional de Análisis de Ciclo de Vida en Latinoamérica, Medellin, Colombia, pp. 10–15 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  28. Dudkowiak, A., Grajewski, D., Dostatni, E.: Analysis of selected IT tools supporting eco-design in the 3D CAD environment. IEEE Access 9, 134945–134956 (2021)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Fargnoli, M., Kimura, F.: The optimization of the design process for an effective use in eco-design. In: Takata, S., Umeda, Y. (eds.) Advances in Life Cycle Engineering for Sustainable Manufacturing Businesses, pp. 59–64. Springer, Tokyo (2007)

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  30. Huijbregts, M.A.J., et al.: ReCiPe2016: a harmonised life cycle impact assessment method at midpoint and endpoint level. Int. J. Life Cycle Assess. 22(2), 138–147 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. SYGNIS: The 5 most important differences between PLA and ABS. Accessed 16 Nov 2021

Download references


The work presented in the paper has been co-financed under grant no. 0613/SBAD/4710 and grant to maintain the research potential of Kazimierz Wielki University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anna Dudkowiak .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Dudkowiak, A., Dostatni, E., Rojek, I., Mikołajewski, D. (2022). The Environmental Analysis of a Product Manufactured with the Use of an Additive Technology. In: Trojanowska, J., Kujawińska, A., Machado, J., Pavlenko, I. (eds) Advances in Manufacturing III. MANUFACTURING 2022. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-99309-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-99310-8

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics