Skip to main content

Traction and Charging Systems for an Electric Motorcycle

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Sustainable Energy for Smart Cities (SESC 2021)


Low energy consumption vehicles such as Electric Motorcycles (EMs) are a very viable solution to reduce energy consumption in the transportation sector. Due to their low power and weight, EMs have high energy efficiency and are optimized for urban transit. In this context, it becomes necessary to develop systems prototypes for any type of Electric Vehicles (EVs). Therefore, the focus of this paper is the implementation of traction and charging systems for an EM. The traction system is composed by a DC motor and a power converter that operates the motor. The power converter control allows the motor to operate in different modes. Besides, the traction system’s input is a hand accelerator/brake that can control the motor speed/torque. The charging system acts as an interface between the power grid and the motorcycle system. With this, the first stage of the charger is AC-DC rectification that, besides regulating the DC-link voltage, should also act as a Power Factor Corrector (PFC) and consume a sinusoidal current from the power grid. The charger should also ensure the battery’s safety and offer the possibility of regulating the charging rate. This paper details the development of traction and charging systems from the presentation of topologies to the computational simulations, and respective experimental tests and validation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 64.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  1. Liberto, C., Valenti, G., Orchi, S., Lelli, M., Nigro, M., Ferrara, M.: The impact of electric mobility scenarios in large urban areas: the Rome case study. IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst. 19(11), 3540–3549 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Adib, A., et al.: E-mobility – advancements and challenges. IEEE Access 7, 165226–165240 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. De Santiago, J., et al.: Electrical motor drivelines in commercial all-electric vehicles: a review. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 61(2), 475–484 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Farzaneh, A., Farjah, E.: a novel smart energy management system in pure electric motorcycle using COA. IEEE Trans. Intell. Veh. 4(4), 600–608 (2019).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Boopathi, C.S., Saha, S., Singh, A., Sinha, S.: Regenerative braking in electric vehicles. Int. J. Recent Technol. Eng. 8(2 Special Issue 11), 3338–3346 (2019).

  6. Hsu, Y.C., Kao, S.C., Ho, C.Y., Jhou, P.H., Lu, M.Z., Liaw, C.M.: On an electric scooter with G2V/V2H/V2G and energy harvesting functions. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 33(8), 6910–6925 (2018).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Hasanah, R.N., Andrean, V., Suyono, H., Soeprapto: An effective method of regenerative braking for electric vehicles. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol. 7(5), 1943–1949 (2017).

  8. Yilmaz, M., Krein, P.T.: Review of battery charger topologies, charging power levels, and infrastructure for plug-in electric and hybrid vehicles. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 28(5), 2151–2169 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Charger, Q.I.O., Na, T., Zhang, Q., Tang, J., Wang, J.: Active Power Filter for Single-Phase 3(3), 197–201 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Saber, C., Labrousse, D., Revol, B., Gascher, A.: Challenges facing PFC of a single-phase on-board charger for electric vehicles based on a current source active rectifier input stage. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 31(9), 6192–6202 (2016).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Kolar, J.W., Friedli, T.: The essence of three-phase PFC rectifier systems part i. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 28(1), 176–198 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Li, G., Huang, H., Song, S., Liu, B.: A nonlinear control scheme based on input–output linearized method achieving PFC and robust constant voltage output for boost converters. Energy Rep. 7, 5386–5393 (2021).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Liu, H., et al.: An analytical model for the CC-CV charge of Li-ion batteries with application to degradation analysis. J. Energy Storage 29, 101342 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Sarrafan, K., Muttaqi, K.M., Sutanto, D.: Real-time estimation of model parameters and state-of-charge of li-ion batteries in electric vehicles using a new mixed estimation model. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 56(5), 5417–5428 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Miniguano, H., Barrado, A., Lazaro, A., Zumel, P., Fernandez, C.: General parameter identification procedure and comparative study of Li-Ion battery models. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 69(1), 235–245 (2020).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Wu, F.K., Yeh, T.J., Huang, C.F.: Motor control and torque coordination of an electric vehicle actuated by two in-wheel motors. Mechatronics 23(1), 46–60 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Zhang, Q., Wen, B., He, Y.: Rotational speed monitoring of brushed DC motor via current signal. Meas.: J. Int. Meas. Confed. 184, 109890 (2021).

  18. Vidlak, M., Makys, P., Stano, M.: Comparison between model based and non-model based sensorless methods of brushed DC motor. Transp. Res. Proc. 55(2019), 911–918 (2021).

Download references


This work has been supported by FCT – Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia within the Project Scope: UIDB/00319/2020. This work has been supported by the FCT Project DAIPESEV PTDC/EEI-EEE/30382/2017. Mr. Tiago J. C. Sousa is supported by the doctoral scholarship SFRH/BD/134353/2017 granted by the Portuguese FCT agency.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Delfim Pedrosa .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 ICST Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Carvalho, J., Sousa, T.J.C., Pedrosa, D. (2022). Traction and Charging Systems for an Electric Motorcycle. In: Afonso, J.L., Monteiro, V., Pinto, J.G. (eds) Sustainable Energy for Smart Cities. SESC 2021. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, vol 425. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-97026-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-97027-7

  • eBook Packages: Computer ScienceComputer Science (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics