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Technologies for Deep Geothermal Energy

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Part of the SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences book series (BRIEFSEARTHSYST)

Abstract

Geothermal energy is currently harvested mainly from high-enthalpy resources, i.e. from resources located in regions with favorable geothermal conditions. Most of them are hydrothermal systems and so-called conventional geothermal reservoirs, such as the oldest geothermal field in Lardarello, Italy. However, technological innovation led to an increased exploration and development of low- to medium-enthalpy resources in hot sedimentary aquifers and petrothermal reservoirs. Especially the latter enables geothermal heat use in less favorable regions, thus circumventing geographical limitations. Firstly, this chapter introduces the typical development steps for geothermal projects and associated technologies and methods. Furthermore, it addresses specific requirements for petrothermal reservoirs, providing an overview of unconventional technologies, equipment, and methods, as well as related research and innovation (R&I) activities. For example, it covers innovative drilling technologies suitable for deep hard-rock formations. In addition, the development of petrothermal reservoirs would not be possible without the enhanced geothermal system (EGS) technology that aims at increasing the reservoir permeability by stimulation techniques. We introduce methods of developing petrothermal reservoirs deploying EGS and give an overview of existing large-scale EGS projects in Europe. Here, a main research focus lies on the development of advanced stimulation techniques for minimizing the risk of induced seismicity.

Keywords

  • Geothermal drilling
  • Exploration
  • Stimulation
  • Enhanced Geothermal Systems
  • Research & Innovation

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Fig. 3.1

Modified from Gehringer and Loksha (2012), used under CC BY 3.0 IGO (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/igo/)

Fig. 3.2

Modified from Dezayes and IMAGE SP3 Team (2019) with permission from Chrystel Dezayes

Fig. 3.3

Reproduced from Polsky et al. (2008) with permission from Yarom Polsky. Right: Schematic well completion plan for a typical geothermal well (data from Dumas et al. 2013)

Fig. 3.4
Fig. 3.5
Fig. 3.6

Modified from http://eavor.com/about/technology (accessed 20 May 2021) with permission from Eavor GmbH

Notes

  1. 1.

    The TRL is a measure for characterizing a technology’s maturity level. It ranges from TRL 1—lowest level where research is beginning—to TRL 9—highest level when an actual system has been proven in operational environment (e.g. NASA 2021).

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Johanna Fink .

Appendices

Appendix 1: Selected European Research Projects on Deep Geothermal

In this section, we present short profiles of selected European research projects that are related to deep geothermal energy and EGS. Most projects are funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 program and deal with R&I related to deep geothermal reservoirs and geothermal heating. They are either ongoing or were completed recently. Information was gathered from the respective project websites, which are also listed.

GEODH: Geothermal District Heating  

Duration::

2011–2014

Main goals/results::

 

\(\bullet \):

Information hub about Geothermal District Heating in Europe

\(\bullet \):

Increasing awareness of this technology

\(\bullet \):

Developing strategies for simplification of administrative and regulatory procedures

\(\bullet \):

Developing innovative financial models

\(\bullet \):

Training technicians, civil servants, and decision-makers to provide background to approve and support projects

Demonstration sites::

27 case studies across Europe (http://geodh.eu/database)

System/Application::

Geothermal District Heating systems

Innovations::

 

\(\bullet \):

GeoDH Geographical Information System

\(\bullet \):

Short comprehensive guides for stakeholders and the public on geothermal district heating in Europe

Project Website::

  www.geodh.eu.

DESTRESS: Demonstration of Soft Stimulation Treatments of Geothermal Reservoirs  

Duration::

2016–2020

Main goals/results::

 

\(\bullet \):

Demonstrating methods of EGS

\(\bullet \):

Adapting and applying recently developed stimulation methods

\(\bullet \):

Developing best practice guides and workflows

\(\bullet \):

Delivering specific stimulation technologies for prototype demonstration

\(\bullet \):

Providing demonstrators for innovative stimulation treatments

Demonstration sites::

 

\(\bullet \):

Bedretto, Switzerland

\(\bullet \):

Geldinganes, Iceland

\(\bullet \):

Groß Schönebeck, Germany

\(\bullet \):

Mezõberény, Hungary

\(\bullet \):

Rittershoffen and Soultz-sous-Forets, France

\(\bullet \):

Haute-Sorne, Switzerland (stopped)

\(\bullet \):

Klaipeda, Lithuania (stopped)

\(\bullet \):

Pohang, South Korea (stopped)

\(\bullet \):

Westland, The Netherlands (stopped)

System/Application::

EGS in different lithologies

Innovations::

Innovative stimulation treatments:

\(\bullet \):

Combined hydraulic-acidization treatments in sandstones and other rocks

\(\bullet \):

Cyclic hydraulic and multi-stage stimulation in granites and tight sandstones

Challenges::

Several stopped demonstrations for different reasons:

\(\bullet \):

Chemical stimulation did not result in hydraulic improvement

\(\bullet \):

Hydraulic stimulation triggered a Mw 5.5 earthquake (in Korea)

\(\bullet \):

Borehole in the Netherlands (Rotliegend) found too low reservoir permeability, commercial project not possible even with successful near wellbore stimulation

\(\bullet \):

Project delay due to a legal process initiated by opponents (Switzerland)

Project website::

 www.destress-h2020.eu/en/home.

PERFORM : Improving Geothermal System Performance Through Collective Knowledge Building and Technology Development

 

Duration::

2018–2021

Main goals/results::

Implementation and evaluation of capabilities to control mineral scaling, particles clogging, corrosion and temperature/stress-related effects of geothermal flow and injectivity Expected to result in an increase of the energy output by 10–50%.

Demonstration sites::

36 in total, 6 key plants:

\(\bullet \):

Denmark: Margretheholm, Sønderborg Fjernvarme, Thisted Varmeforsyning

\(\bullet \):

Germany: Gross Schönebeck

\(\bullet \):

Netherlands: Honselersdijk, Pijnacker Nootdorp

System/Application::

Central European plants with high salinity, high heavy metals concentration, and relatively low temperatures (60–170  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\))

Innovations::

Demonstration of new and improved, cost-effective technologies to prevent clogging and corrosion: low-cost cation extraction filters, self-cleaning particle removal appliances, H\(_{2}\)S removal technology, and soft-stimulating injection procedures (thermal and CO\(_{2}\)-injection).

Challenges::

Problems and learnings are summarized on the project webpage

Project website::

 www.geothermperform.eu.

MEET: Multi-sites EGS Demonstration  

Duration::

2018–2021

Main goals/results::

 

\(\bullet \):

Gathering knowledge of EGS in various geological settings

\(\bullet \):

Increasing heat production from existing plants and convert oil wells into geothermal wells

\(\bullet \):

Enhancing heat-to-power conversion at low temperatures (60–90  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\)) by using smart mobile Organic Rankine Cycle units

\(\bullet \):

Providing roadmap of promising sites where EGS solutions for electricity and heat production could be replicated in a near future

Demonstration sites::

 

\(\bullet \):

Cazaux, Chaunoy, Condorcet, and Soultz-sous-Forets, France

\(\bullet \):

Death Valley Analog, USA

\(\bullet \):

Grásteinn and Krauma, Iceland

\(\bullet \):

Havelange, Belgium

\(\bullet \):

United Downs Deep Geothermal Project, UK

\(\bullet \):

Universitätsenergie Göttingen GmbH, Germany

System/Application::

EGS

Innovations::

Open Access Decision Support Tool for optimal usage of Geothermal Energy; Demonstration of electricity and thermal power generation from various geological contexts

Project website::

 www.meet-h2020.com.

DARLINGe: Danube Region Leading Geothermal Energy  

Duration::

2017–2019

Main goals/results::

 

\(\bullet \):

Increasing the use of geothermal energy

\(\bullet \):

Advancing stakeholder cooperation

\(\bullet \):

Delivering data of deep geothermal energy resources at southern part of Pannonian Basin

\(\bullet \):

Establishing a market-replicable tool box

Demonstration sites::

Three cross-border pilot areas: Slovenia-Hungary-Croatia, Serbia-Hungary-Romania, Serbia-Bosnia and Herzegovina

System/Application::

Energy-efficient cascade system

Innovations::

 

\(\bullet \):

Market-replicable tool box with three complementary modules:

−:

an independent indicator-based benchmark evaluation of current uses

−:

a decision tree tool to help developers

−:

a geological risk mitigation tool to maximize the success rate of a first geothermal well

\(\bullet \):

Web-map viewer with data from study region

Project website::

 www.darlinge.eu.

GEOSMART

 

Duration::

2019–2023

Main goals/results::

Combine thermal energy storage with flexible ORC solutions for improving the flexibility and efficiency of geothermal heat and power systems

Demonstration sites::

 

\(\bullet \):

Balmatt, Belgium (low enthalpy)

\(\bullet \):

Kizildere field, Turkey (high enthalpy)

System/Application::

Low- and high-enthalpy CHP

Innovations::

 

\(\bullet \):

Hybrid cooling system for ORC to prevent efficiency degradation due to seasonal variations

\(\bullet \):

Scaling reduction system: specially design retention tank, heat exchanger, and recombination with extracted gases

Project website::

 www.geosmartproject.eu.

GEO-DRILL : Development of Novel and Cost-Effective Drilling Technology for Geothermal Systems

 

Duration::

2019–2022.

Main goals/results::

 

\(\bullet \):

Reducing drilling costs through DTH hammer

\(\bullet \):

Advancing drill monitoring through low-cost and robust 3D printed sensors

\(\bullet \):

Improving component life through advanced materials and coatings

System/Application::

Deep geothermal with high temperatures

Innovations::

 

\(\bullet \):

Robust DTH hammer with high ROP and ability to use drilling mud for improved cuttings transport

\(\bullet \):

High-fidelity drill monitoring system based on robust 3D printed sensor, cables, compatible in extreme geothermal environments, for fast-wired communication to enable real-time monitoring system

\(\bullet \):

Economical and efficient methods, materials, and designs in surface engineering to produce high-performance coated surfaces optimized for operating in the aggressive environments of geodrilling

\(\bullet \):

Integrated tool for sustainability assessment and decision-making

Project website::

 www.geodrillproject.eu.

GEO-COAT : Development of Novel and Cost-Effective Corrosion Resistant Coatings for High Temperature Geothermal Applications

 

Duration::

2018–2021

Main goals/results::

Developing specialized corrosion- and erosion-resistant coatings optimized for operation in aggressive Geothermal environments

System/Application::

Aggressive geothermal environments

Innovations::

 

\(\bullet \):

Novel coatings based on selected high entropy alloys and ceramic/metal mixtures

\(\bullet \):

Knowledge-based system database

\(\bullet \):

Flow assurance simulator

Project website::

 www.geo-coat.eu.

GEOHEX : Advanced Material for Cost-Efficient and Enhanced Heat Exchange Performance for Geothermal Applications

 

Duration::

2019–2022

Main goals/results::

Developing material with anti-scaling and anti-corrosion properties

Innovations::

Improved heat exchanger materials

Project website::

 www.geohexproject.eu.

GEOPRO : Accurate Geofluid Properties as Key to Geothermal Process Optimization

 

Duration::

2019–2022

Main goals/results::

 

\(\bullet \):

Understanding and modeling geofluid characteristics

\(\bullet \):

Improving the accuracy and consistency of key thermodynamic and kinetic input data for increasing the efficiency of plant operations

Demonstration sites::

Turkey, Iceland, Germany

Project website::

 www.geoproproject.eu.

GEOENVI : Tackling the Environmental Concerns for Deploying Geothermal Energy in Europe

 

Duration::

2018–2021

Main goals/results::

 

\(\bullet \):

Mapping environmental impacts and risks and defining how environmental footprint is measured and controlled in different (European) countries

\(\bullet \):

Building a harmonized methodology to assess environmental impacts

\(\bullet \):

Life Cycle approach: Generic database on environmental concerns

Demonstration sites::

 

\(\bullet \):

Theistareykir, Iceland

\(\bullet \):

Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen, France

\(\bullet \):

Bagnore 3 and 4 geothermal power plants, Amiata, Italy

\(\bullet \):

Kizildere, Turkey

\(\bullet \):

Balmatt, Belgium

\(\bullet \):

Szeged district heating system, Hungary

 

Innovations::

Simplified Life Cycle Assessment methodology that calculates environmental impacts and benefits in one day

Project website::

 www.geoenvi.eu.

GEORISK : Developing Geothermal and Renewable Energy Projects by Mitigating Their Risks

 

Duration::

2018–2021

Main goals/results::

Establishing risk insurance for deep geothermal plants all over Europe and in key target third countries

Demonstration sites::

Europe, Chile, Mexico, Kenya

Innovations::

 

\(\bullet \):

Risk register: list of plausible risks and corresponding de-risking measures

\(\bullet \):

Risk assessment for different regions

Project website::

 www.georisk-project.eu.

Appendix 2: Selected Deep Geothermal Sites Across Europe with a Focus on EGS Sites

In the following, we present brief overviews of selected large-scale deep geothermal sites across Europe. The presented projects comprise research facilities and pilot projects, successfully operating commercial plants, as well as abandoned sites. We focus on EGS projects—both petrothermal and hot sedimentary aquifers. In addition, three hydrothermal reservoir projects are given, which are exemplary for many more hydrothermal plants in Europe.

EGS—Petrothermal

Finland: Otaniemi Project, Espoo

 

Status::

Ongoing (development and construction phase)

Lithology::

Precambrian igneous rocks: Gneiss, amphibolite, granitic intrusions

Wells::

2 wells up to 6000 m

Reservoir::

100–110  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\)

Capacity::

Planned: up to 40  MW\(_{th}\), covering up to 10% of Espoo’s district heating demand

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Funding::

Energy company St1 and public subsidies

Specialties::

 

\(\bullet \):

World’s deepest industrial geothermal energy project

\(\bullet \):

Hydraulic stimulation phase finished

\(\bullet \):

Microseismic events during and after stimulation (max. M 1.9)

\(\bullet \):

Ongoing flow tests in both wells

\(\bullet \):

Ongoing construction and installation of the above-ground power plant

Source of information::

Kukkonen and Pentti (2021), Leonhardt et al. (2021), Hillers et al. (2020), and St1 (2021).

France: Soultz-sous-Forêts

 

Status::

Ongoing (since 1984)

Lithology::

Granite

Wells::

One well 3600 m deep plus three wells 5000 m deep (2 production wells, 1 injection well)

Reservoir::

165  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 20 l s\(^{-1}\)

Capacity::

1.5  MW\(_e\), ORC plant since 2008

Purpose::

Research facility and pilot plant

Funding::

€80 Mio. (€30 Mio. EU, €25 Mio. Germany, €25 Mio. France)

Specialties::

Two 3600 m deep wells drilled first, later one well was deepened to 5000 m and two additional boreholes were drilled to 5000 m

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

France: Rittershoffen  

Status::

Ongoing (since 2008)

Lithology::

Granite

Wells::

2500 m deep

Reservoir::

150–170  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\)

Capacity::

24  MW\(_{th}\)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Specialties::

First European EGS providing industrial heat

Source of information::

Mouchot et al. (2018).

France: GEOVEN, Strasbourg

 

Status::

Abandoned in 2020

Lithology::

Transition between sedimentary cover and granitic basement

Wells::

5400 and 6000 m (doublet)

Reservoir::

>150  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\)

Capacity::

Planned: electricity for up to 20000 households, heat for 26000 households

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Specialties::

Seismic events during well testing resulted in the closure of the project, largest event was M3.6.

Source of information::

GEOVEN (2021) and Schmittbuhl et al. (2021).

Germany: Bad Urach

 

Status::

Abandoned

Lithology::

Metamorphic, Gneiss

Wells::

4445 m (Urach 3) and 2793 m (Urach 4)

Reservoir::

Urach 3: 170  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 50 l s\(^{-1}\) during fracturing test

Capacity::

1  MW\(_e\) (planned)

Purpose::

Pilot plant

Specialties::

 

\(\bullet \):

One of the first EGS projects on pilot scale worldwide

\(\bullet \):

Urach 4 was planned to drill until 4300 m but geological difficulties, loss of drilling fluid, financial difficulties occurred

\(\bullet \):

Urach 3: torn off bore rod

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

Germany: Groß-Schönebeck

 

Status::

Ongoing (since 2000)

Lithology::

Sandstone and andesitic volcanic rocks

Wells::

4309 m (reopened abandoned borehole from gas exploration) and 4400 m

Reservoir::

145  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 20 l s\(^{-1}\), hydraulic gel proppant and fracturing, chemical fracturing

Capacity::

10  MW\(_{th}\), 1  MW\(_{e}\) (ORC) planned

Purpose::

Research facility

Specialties::

In situ geothermal laboratory

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

Germany: GeneSys Hannover

 

Status::

Abandoned

Lithology::

Sedimentary (Bunter Sandstone)

Wells::

Horstberg: 3800 m, Hannover: 2900 m

Reservoir::

 

\(\bullet \):

Horstberg: 150  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 10–20 l s\(^{-1}\)

\(\bullet \):

Hannover: 160  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 7 l s\(^{-1}\) (planned), hydraulic fracturing

Capacity::

Aim: 2  MW\(_{th}\) with 25 m\(^{3}\) h\(^{-1}\) at 130  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\) for heating the Geozentrum Hannover

Purpose::

Research facility

Funding::

€15 Mio.

Specialties::

 

\(\bullet \):

Pilot project for single-well concept

\(\bullet \):

20000 m\(^{3}\) freshwater have been injected (up to 80 l s\(^{-1}\))

\(\bullet \):

Microseismicity in Hannover (M1.8)

\(\bullet \):

Hannover: Injected freshwater dissolved high amounts of salt, salt deposition occurred during pumping up the hot water

\(\bullet \):

Horstberg: abandoned gas well used for research purposes

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

Hungary: South Hungarian EGS Demonstration Project, Battonya

 

Status::

Ongoing (since 2012), in exploration and planning phase (status 2016)

Lithology::

Igneous, Granite

Wells::

Planned depth 3500–4000 m, four production and two injection wells planned

Reservoir::

Expected: 225  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\) at 4000 m depth, 280 kg s\(^{-1}\)

Capacity::

8.9  MW\(_e\) (planned)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Funding::

€39 Mio. from NER300 (Europe), €56 Mio. project costs

Specialties::

Planned hydraulic stimulation in a compressional stress field: pressure up to 350 bar, stimulation of multiple fracture zones

Source of information::

Ádám and Cladouhos (2016) and EU-FIRE (2016).

Sweden: Fjällbacka

 

Status::

Concluded (1984–1995)

Lithology::

Granite

Wells::

70–500 m

Reservoir::

16  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), flow rates of 0.8–1.8  l s\(^{-1}\)

Capacity::

None

Purpose::

Research facility

Specialties::

One of the first EGS experiments worldwide

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

Sweden: Lund

 

Status::

Concluded (start 2001)

Lithology::

Precambrian igneous rocks (gneiss, amphibolite, metabasite, dolerite)

Wells::

Exploration well: 3701.8 m

Reservoir::

85  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), insufficient fluid production rate

Capacity::

None

Purpose::

Research facility

Specialties::

 

\(\bullet \):

Drilled into the Romeleåsen thrust fault zone

\(\bullet \):

Exploration well found too low temperature and fluid production rate for a commercial use

Source of information::

Rosberg and Erlström (2019).

Sweden: Malmö

 

Status::

Ongoing (exploration phase)

Lithology::

Precambrian igneous rocks: gneiss, amphibolite, metabasite, dolerite

Wells::

Exploration well: 3133 m and 6000 m deep wells planned

Reservoir::

84.1  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\) at 3133 m depth, geothermal gradient between 17.4 and 23.5 \(^{\circ }\)C km\(^{-1}\)

Capacity::

Not known

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Specialties::

District heating for the city of Malmö

Source of information::

Rosberg and Erlström (2021).

Switzerland: Deep Heat Mining Project, Basel

 

Status::

Abandoned (2005–2009)

Lithology::

Igneous, Granite

Wells::

Exploration: 2700 m; Basel 1: 5003 m

Reservoir::

200  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 70 kg s\(^{-1}\) (expected)

Capacity::

3  MW\(_{e}\) and 20  MW\(_{th}\) (planned)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Funding::

CHF 28 Mio. from canton Basel, CHF 56 Mio. total project costs

Specialties::

 

\(\bullet \):

Hydraulic stimulation below 4629 m depth

\(\bullet \):

Microseismic activity built up during first 6 days of fluid injection (magnitudes up to M2.6), therefore injection was stopped and the project had to be abandoned

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

Switzerland: Haute-Sorne

 

Status::

On-hold (planning phase)

Lithology::

Granite, Gneiss

Wells::

4000–5000 m

Reservoir::

>140  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), >60 l s\(^{-1}\) (expected)

Capacity::

max. 5  MW\(_e\) (planned)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Funding::

Supported by SF 90 Mio. from Switzerland

Specialties::

Project delay due to legal process initiated by opponents, which was won by the operator Geo-Energie Suisse. Yet, local authorities withdrew concession in April 2020, future of the project is uncertain

Source of information::

Geo-Energie Suisse and Geo-Energie Jura (2019) and Richter (2021).

UK: Eden Project, Cornwall

 

Status::

Ongoing (development phase, drilling of the first well)

Lithology::

Granite

Wells::

Two 4500 m wells (planned)

Reservoir::

Expected: 180–190  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 55 l s\(^{-1}\); hydraulic fracturing

Capacity::

Planned: 4  MW\(_e\)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Funding::

GBP 9.9 Mio. from the European Regional Development Fund, GBP 1.4 Mio. from Cornwall Council, GBP 5.5 Mio. from institutional investors

Specialties::

 

\(\bullet \):

Drilling into a fault system

\(\bullet \):

First phase: heating greenhouses and offices with a coaxial circulation system in one well

\(\bullet \):

Second phase: second well and electricity plant

Source of information::

Eden Geothermal (2021).

UK: United Downs Deep Geothermal Power Project, Cornwall

 

Status::

Ongoing (construction phase)

Lithology::

Granite

Wells::

Production: 5275 m, injection: 2393 m

Reservoir::

Expected: 190  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), hydraulic fracturing planned

Capacity::

Planned: 10  MW\(_e\), 55  MW\(_{th}\)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Funding::

Mixture of private and public funds

Specialties::

 

\(\bullet \):

Wells intersect the Porthtowan Fault Zone

\(\bullet \):

Binary power plant to be constructed

Source of information::

GEL (2021).

UK: Rosemanowes

 

Status::

Concluded (1984–1992)

Lithology::

Granite

Wells::

2600 m

Reservoir::

79–100  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 4–25  l s\(^{-1}\)

Capacity::

None

Purpose::

Research facility

Specialties::

 

\(\bullet \):

One of the first EGS experiments worldwide

\(\bullet \):

Hydraulic fracturing, viscous gel stimulation, placement of proppants in joints

\(\bullet \):

Seismicity: max. M3.1

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

EGS—Hot Sedimentary Aquifer

Germany: Bruchsal

 

Status::

Ongoing

Lithology::

Sedimentary: Middle Bunter Sandstone

Wells::

1900 and 2450 m

Reservoir::

120–130  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 24 l s\(^{-1}\)

Capacity::

5.5  MW\(_{th}\), 0.55  MW\(_{e}\)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Funding::

Public subsidies: €2.5 Mio. EU, €2.7 Mio. Germany

Specialties::

€8.1 Mio. drilling costs

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

Germany: Landau

 

Status::

Ongoing

Lithology::

Sedimentary: Muschelkalk

Wells::

3170–3300 m

Reservoir::

159  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 70–80 l s\(^{-1}\), hydraulic stimulation for injector

Capacity::

3  MW\(_{e}\), 3–6  MW\(_{th}\)

Purpose::

Commercial Plant

Specialties::

 

\(\bullet \):

Seismic events occurred in 2009 (2.4–2.7 M)

\(\bullet \):

Heaving and horizontal movements of the ground in 2013 led to temporary shut down

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

Germany: Insheim  

Status::

Ongoing (start: 2007, production since 2012)

Lithology::

Sedimentary: Keuper, Perm, Bunter sandstone

Wells::

3600–3800 m

Reservoir::

165  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 50–80 l s\(^{-1}\), hydraulic stimulation

Capacity::

4.8  MW\(_{e}\); planned: 6–10  MW\(_{th}\)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Specialties::

Seismicity: 2–2.4 M

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

Germany: Unterhaching  

Status::

Ongoing (since 2004)

Lithology::

Limestone

Wells::

3350–3380 m

Reservoir::

123  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), 150 l s\(^{-1}\), chemical stimulation for increasing the natural flow rates

Capacity::

3.4  MW\(_e\), 38  MW\(_{th}\) (max.)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Specialties::

Kalina plant

Source of information::

Sigfússon and Uihlein (2015b).

Hydrothermal Systems

Iceland: Hellisheidi  

Status::

Ongoing (since 2001)

Lithology::

Basalt

Wells::

47 production wells, 17 re-injection wells, around 2000 m max. depth

Reservoir::

Flash steam

Capacity::

303  MW\(_e\), 133  MW\(_{th}\), extension of thermal plant to 400  MW possible

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Funding::

Total costs USD 278 Mio.

Source of information::

Gunnlaugson (2012).

Italy: Lardarello-Travale Area (Lago, Molinetto, Gabbro, Travale)  

Status::

Ongoing

Lithology::

Carbonate rocks

Wells::

More than 500 wells, 500–4000 m

Reservoir::

Dry steam; Steam flow: 22.22–69.44 kg s\(^{-1}\);

Inlet steam temperature::

127–195  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\)

Capacity::

Around 8 to >40  MW

Purpose::

Commercial plants

Specialties::

First geothermal site (1904), dry steam plants

Source of information::

DiPippo (2016) and Minissale (1991).

Netherlands: The Hague

 

Status::

Ongoing

Lithology::

Sandstone

Wells::

2200 m doublet

Reservoir::

78  \({}^{\circ }\text {C}\), around 42 l s\(^{-1}\)

Capacity::

6  MW\({_{th}}\)

Purpose::

Commercial plant

Specialties::

District heating

Source of information::

IF Technology (2021) and Richter (2020)

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Fink, J., Heim, E., Klitzsch, N. (2022). Technologies for Deep Geothermal Energy. In: State of the Art in Deep Geothermal Energy in Europe. SpringerBriefs in Earth System Sciences. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-96870-0_3

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