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Table 2.1 Typology of problems

From: The Rise of ‘Wicked Problems’—Uncertainty, Complexity and Divergence

  Actors willing to cooperate or avoid conflict Multiple actors each with relevant useful knowledge Multiple actors with conflicting values and interests
Both problem and solution known Tame problem Communicatively complex problem Politically complex problem
Problem known, solution not known Analytically complex problem Complex problem Wicked problem
Neither problem nor solution known Cognitively complex problem Wicked problem Very wicked problem
  1. Source adapted from Head and Alford (2008, p. 10); for a more detailed account see Alford and Head (2017, pp. 405–406)