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Human-Carnivore Coexistence in the Tarangire Ecosystem

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Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD,volume 243)


Facilitating coexistence between humans and large carnivores is one of the most complex and pressing conservation issues globally. Large carnivores pose threats to human security and private property, and people may respond to those risks with retaliation which can jeopardize the persistence of carnivore populations. The nature of these interactions can be influenced by several variables including ecological, anthropogenic as well as political dimensions. The Tarangire Ecosystem (TE) of northern Tanzania is a stronghold for multiple large carnivore species. Despite multi-faceted and long-term carnivore conservation efforts being implemented in the ecosystem, the anthropogenic impacts on carnivore populations are pervasive. As only a portion of the TE is fully protected, the wide-ranging nature of carnivores brings them into close contact with people living among a matrix of village lands. Consequently, this ecosystem experiences high levels of human-carnivore conflicts. In this chapter, we synthesize the existing information to characterize the extent, impacts, and spatiotemporal patterns of human-carnivore interactions (which often result in severe conflicts, causing harm to people, livestock, and carnivores), examine the efficacy and challenges of implementing interventions designed to reduce human-carnivore conflict, and explore the socio-economic dimensions of these mitigation efforts.


  • Carnivora
  • Retaliatory killing
  • Livestock depredation
  • Impact assessment
  • Conservation intervention

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-93604-4_14
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Work by Tarangire Lion Project was supported by the African Wildlife Foundation, Asilia, Lion Recovery Fund, PAMS Foundation, Panthera, People’s Trust for Endangered Species, National Geographic Big Cat Initiative and WildAid. Work by TPW was supported by IUCN Save Our Species, co-funded by the European Union, Lion Recovery, National Geographic Big Cat Initiative. This publication was produced with the financial support of the European Union through IUCN Save Our Species. Its contents are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of IUCN or the European Union. Additional data collection was supported by the School for Field Studies.

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Correspondence to Bernard M. Kissui .

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© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

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Kissui, B.M., Kisimir, E.L., Lichtenfeld, L.L., Naro, E.M., Montgomery, R.A., Kiffner, C. (2022). Human-Carnivore Coexistence in the Tarangire Ecosystem. In: Kiffner, C., Bond, M.L., Lee, D.E. (eds) Tarangire: Human-Wildlife Coexistence in a Fragmented Ecosystem. Ecological Studies, vol 243. Springer, Cham.

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