Skip to main content

Closed Cycle of Biodegradable Wastes in Smart Cities

  • 50 Accesses

Part of the EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing book series (EAISICC)


The key issue of modern cities is their energy independence, which is still insufficient for most cities in the world. Outages in the supply of energy raw materials can endanger the basic functioning of cities, especially with regard to the heat supply of cities in the colder parts of our earth. This threat is exacerbated as far as the energy source is located further away from the city. It also increases transportation costs, which also increases the already high carbon footprint of the city. The solution to this problem is to find local sources of raw materials, which is the focus of this article. The most important of the energy raw materials in cities are municipal wastes. In addition, their biodegradable component, which makes up the majority, is a clean renewable resource. By incinerating this biodegradable municipal waste, we are able to reduce the cost of transporting and landfilling waste from cities and, on the other hand, obtain a source of clean and environmentally friendly alternative fuel. In this way, we create an alternative to the currently used fossil fuel coal, which often has to be imported to cities from great distances. Our article examines the benefits of using the basic components of this biodegradable waste generated in city parks, gardens or in the surrounding fields, and forests near cities. By burning these raw materials, we are able to create a closed cycle of these raw materials and ensure a balanced use of resources on our planet.


  • Alternative biomass
  • Municipal waste treatment
  • Incineration

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-92968-8_4
  • Chapter length: 15 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-92968-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. Mishra UC (2004) Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India. J Environ Radioact 72:35–40.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  2. Karampinis E, Grammelis P et al (2014) Co-firing of biomass with coal in thermal power plants: technology schemes, impacts, and future perspectives. Wires Energy Environ 3:384–399.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Rasmussen C, Vigsoe D (2005) Rethinking the waste hierarchy. Institut for Miljoevurdering, Copenhagen, p 118

    Google Scholar 

  4. Kammen MD, Sunter AD (2016) City-integrated renewable energy for urban sustainability. Science 352:922–928.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Zavodska A, Benesova L, Smith B, Morrissey A (2014) A comparison of biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) management strategies in Ireland and the Czech Republic and the lessons learned. Resour Conserv Recycl 92:136–144

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Pobozna M (2019) Waste in the Slovak Republic 2018. Statistical Office SR, Bratislava, p 92

    Google Scholar 

  7. Crowe M, Nolan K; Company Biodegradable Municipal Waste Management in Europe (2002) European Environment Agency, p 123.

  8. Shi Y, Ge Y, Chang J, Shao H, Tang Y (2013) Garden waste biomass for renewable and sustainable energy production in China: potential, challenges and development. Renew Sust Energ Rev 22:432–437

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Loehr CR (1974) Agricultural waste management problems, processes, approaches. Subsidiary of Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Ithaca

    Google Scholar 

  10. Macfarlane WD (2009) Potential availability of urban wood biomass in Michigan: implications for energy production, carbon sequestration and sustainable forest management in the USA. Biomass Bioenergy 33:628–634

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Cicmanec S (2008) Biogas - suitable supplement to natural gas. Slovgas 5:24–27

    Google Scholar 

  12. Hrobaj P (2000) Ecological aspects of combustion. Neografia, Martin

    Google Scholar 

  13. Ohman M, Nordin A et al (2000) Bed agglomeration characteristics during fluidized bed combustion of biomass fuels. Energy Fuel 14:169–178.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Puy N, Murillo R et al (2011) Valorization of forestry waste by pyrolysis in an auger reactor. Waste Manag 31:1339–1349

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Fang W, Song W, Liu L et al (2000) Characteristics of indoor and outdoor fine particles in heating period at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Harbin, China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27:1825–1834

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Caserini S, Livion S, Giugliano M, Grosso M, Rigamonti L (2010) LCA of domestic and centralized biomass combustion: the case of Lombardy (Italy). Biomass Bioenergy 34:474–482

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Obernberger I (1998) Decentralized biomass combustion: state of the art and future development. Biomass Bioenergy 14:33–56

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. STN EN ISO 1716, 2010: Reaction to fire tests for products. Determination of the gross heat of combustion

    Google Scholar 

  19. LECO Corporation Michigan, USA, 2019: 628 series elemental analysis by combustion.

Download references


This contribution has been created as part of the project VEGA 1/0233/19 “Construction modification of the burner for combustion of solid fuels in small heat sources” and KEGA 033ŽU-4/2018 “Heat sources and pollution of the environment” and APVV-17-0311 “Research and development of zero waste technology for the decomposition and selection of undesirable components from process gas generated by the gasifier”.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michal Holubčík .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Holubčík, M., Jandačka, J., Trnka, J. (2023). Closed Cycle of Biodegradable Wastes in Smart Cities. In: Cagáňová, D., Horňáková, N. (eds) Industry 4.0 Challenges in Smart Cities. EAI/Springer Innovations in Communication and Computing. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-92967-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-92968-8

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)