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Care of the Child with an Infectious Disease or Immunological Defect

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Abstract

This chapter reviews diagnostic tests for common pediatric infectious diseases and tests utilized in the initial evaluation of immunological defects. The primary laboratory methods for infectious disease testing include serology, antigen detection, molecular diagnostics, culture, and direct visualization. Ancillary testing for markers of inflammation can also help guide the clinician in the detection of disease. The diagnostic tests for common bacterial, viral, tick-borne, and parasitic infections are discussed, emphasizing preferred testing strategies to identify infectious agents and the associated limitations. Testing strategies are reviewed for infections encountered in various pediatric populations, including immunocompetent and immunocompromised children and neonates. Initial screening for a child with a suspected immunological defect may include immunoglobulins, vaccine titers, or complement pathways.

Keywords

  • Bacteria
  • Virus
  • Tick-borne
  • Serology
  • Agglutination assay
  • Complement fixation
  • Neutralization assay
  • Immunofluorescent assay
  • Western blot and immunoblot
  • Enzyme assay
  • Nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)
  • PCR
  • Non-amplified nucleic acid probes
  • Nucleic amplification tests
  • Antigen tests
  • Culture
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility testing
  • Direct visualization and tissue biopsy
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation test
  • C-reactive protein
  • Serum ferritin
  • Procalcitonin
  • Amyloid A

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Fig. 6.1
Fig. 6.2
Fig. 6.3

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Gyura, A.N., Harrison, E.R. (2022). Care of the Child with an Infectious Disease or Immunological Defect. In: John, R.M. (eds) Pediatric Diagnostic Labs for Primary Care: An Evidence-based Approach. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-90642-9_6

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