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In this chapter, ultra-low voltage and ultra-low power circuits used to implement active-RC filters and programmable gain amplifiers are analyzed and presented. To reach the ULP operation, the circuits presented use single-stage operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) in order to avoid the dissipated power in the phase margin compensation of the multiple stages OTA. To compensate the effects of the reduced voltage gain and resistive loading, a negative input transconductor is used at the closed-loop OTA inputs. The ULV operation is obtained by using only two-stacked transistors in all the circuit implementation. Due to this, modern circuit topologies are presented to the OTA and negative transconductance implementation is applied in order to operate correctly in ULV and, at the same time, to be robust under PVT variations. The following sections first describe the single-stage OTA compensation employing an input connected negative tranconductor and, in the sequence, all the presented circuit implementations and its characteristics are shown.

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Severo, L.C., Van Noije, W.M.A. (2022). Single Stage OTA and Negative Transconductance Compensation. In: Ultra-low Voltage Low Power Active-RC Filters and Amplifiers for Low Energy RF Receivers . Springer, Cham.

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