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How Do Simulated High-Intensity Situations Train Leaders to Maintain Their Ability to Act in Unfamiliar, Unforeseen or Uncertain Environments?

Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL,volume 30)

Abstract

In addition to being rooted in an enactive conception of the activity (Durand & Poizat, 2015; Theureau, 2003), one of the originalities of this research is to focus on the learning experienced by cadets while they are engaged in spaces of action that do not encourage their activity, but on the contrary hinder it: the hardening training course. The purpose of this training is to make these officer cadets experience simulated situations of physical, emotional and psychological over-stress, presenting similarities with their future professional life.

In order to better understand how, within such a simulation device, officer cadets experiment with their ability to maintain individuals’ dispositions to act, we analysed the engagement modes of the trainees in their learnings to command among aversive environments.

The results show that alongside the well-known forms of executory and exploratory engagement, a “conservatory” mode of engagement appears, the aim of which is to preserve the conditions for perpetuating the action and capacities of each officer cadet.

This research leads to the formulation of principles for the design of trainings whose aim is to prepare professionals to deal with the unknown, the unexpected and even the unbearable.

Keywords

  • High-intensity training
  • Command activity
  • Engagement modes

Cases from crisis preparedness training at the École Militaire Interarmes (EMIA: Joint Military School).

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Fig. 1
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Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    CEFE: Equatorial Forest Training Centre.

  2. 2.

    Brazil (CIGS of Manaus), Colombia (Lanceros) and Ecuador (Tigre).

  3. 3.

    General Army Staff Note 727/DEF/EMAT/ES/B.EMP/OUT/33, April 2010.

  4. 4.

    See Sect. 2.2 below.

  5. 5.

    With reference to the positive/negative distinction of risk management made by Johnston & Paton, 2001.

  6. 6.

    Without of course denying the many possibilities, such as observing the unobservable or reconstructing critical situations, or being exposed without risk to dangerous situations, etc.

  7. 7.

    This refers to what can be told, commented on and shown.

  8. 8.

    These have been described in the empirical and technological course-of-action research programme (Theureau, 2003).

  9. 9.

    Please recall that danger is defined as ‘the intrinsic capacity of an activity, substance, technology or situation to harm the integrity of people, property or the environment’ (Chauvin, 2014, p. 16).

  10. 10.

    Question in response to which the author invites us to investigate practices aimed at ‘learning to act differently so as not to be surprised’ (p. 8).

  11. 11.

    L’École Militaire Interarmes.

  12. 12.

    See the insert: the key role of concerns in the six components of the hexadic sign.

  13. 13.

    As much for biological reasons as for dependence on the social environment. See Le Blanc (2011) and Maillard (2011).

  14. 14.

    That is, the set of interconnections of sensory, sensorimotor and cognitive dimensions.

  15. 15.

    We assume that other studies will uncover other forms of contextual engagement.

  16. 16.

    See Sect. 5.2.2.

  17. 17.

    In terms of frequency of occurrence.

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De Bisschop, H., Leblanc, S. (2022). How Do Simulated High-Intensity Situations Train Leaders to Maintain Their Ability to Act in Unfamiliar, Unforeseen or Uncertain Environments?. In: Flandin, S., Vidal-Gomel, C., Becerril Ortega, R. (eds) Simulation Training through the Lens of Experience and Activity Analysis. Professional and Practice-based Learning, vol 30. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89567-9_12

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