Skip to main content

A Study of Police Cadets’ Activity During Use-of-Force Simulation-Based Training: Empirical Lessons and Insights for Training Design

  • 96 Accesses

Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL,volume 30)

Abstract

Many police around the world integrated simulation-based training into their programs, more particularly use-of-force simulation. The use-of-force is a core element characterizing law enforcement practices. It requires the acquisition of a wide set of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) and tactics. In this regard, simulation-based training is widely recognized as an effective approach. However, various questions have received little empirical attention, such as whether the simulation-based training helps trainees to make sense of early work experience (EWE) and how simulation-lived experience can resonate with real-work practices. Our study proposes a fine-grained analysis of police cadets’ activity and lived experience during simulation-based exercises. It aimed at (a) identifying typical dimensions in the trainees’ enacted activity and lived experience during simulated scenarios, (b) informing learning opportunities, and situated knowledge mobilized and built during simulated scenarios, (c) documenting how simulation-lived experience resonates with real-work practices or EWE, and (d) documenting the living and unfolding of the unexpected during simulated scenarios. It was conducted within the course-of-action theoretical and methodological framework, which proposes an enactive, phenomenological, and semiotic view of working/training practices. Practical implications for the design of use-of-force training and simulation-based training are formulated on the basis of this empirical study.

Keywords

  • Use-of-force
  • Simulation
  • Enacted practice
  • Lived experience
  • Work analysis
  • Police training

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-89567-9_11
  • Chapter length: 17 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-89567-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Bennell, C., Jones, N., & Corey, S. (2007). Does use-of-force simulation training in Canadian police agencies incorporate principles of effective training? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 13, 35–58.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chappell, A. (2008). Police academy training: Comparing across curricula. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 31, 36–56.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Dieumegard, G., de Vries, E., & Perrin, N. (2020). The ‘course-of-action’ method in the study of lived experience of learners. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 44, 67–81.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Drakos, A., Flandin, S., Filippi, G., Palaci, F., Veyrunes, P., & Poizat, G. (2021). From exploration to re-enactment: Instructional uses of a desktop virtual environment for training nuclear plant field operators. Vocations & Learning. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-020-09261-1

  • Dubey, G. (1997). Faire « comme si » n’est pas faire. In P. Beguin & A. Weill-Fassina (Eds.), La simulation en ergonomie: connaître, agir, et interagir (pp. 39–53). Octarès.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dubois, L.-A., & Van Daele, A. (2018). Analyse de l’usage d’un dispositif de simulation pour la formation initiale de policiers à partir de l’activité de formateurs. Education & Formation, e-308, 83–94.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durand, M. (2014). Activité humaine et éducation des adultes. In J. Friedrich & J. Pita (Eds.), Recherches en formation des adultes: un dialogue entre concepts et réalité (pp. 15–39). Editions Raison et Passions.

    Google Scholar 

  • Durand, M., & Poizat, G. (2015). An activity-centred approach to work analysis and the design of vocational training situations. In L. Filliettaz & S. Billett (Eds.), Francophone perspectives of learning through work: Conceptions, traditions and practices (pp. 221–240). Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Filliettaz, L., Billett, S., Bourgeois, E., Durand, M., & Poizat, G. (2015). Conceptualising and connecting Francophone perspectives on learning through and for work. In L. Filliettaz & S. Billett (Eds.), Francophone perspectives of learning through work: Conceptions, traditions and practices (pp. 19–48). Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Flandin, S., Poizat, G., & Durand, M. (2018). Improving resilience in high-risk organizations: Principles for the design of innovative training situations. Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, 32, 9–12.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flandin, S., Poizat, G., & Perinet, R. (2019). Contribuer à la sécurité industrielle «par le facteur humain»: Un regard pour aider à (re)penser la formation. FonCSI.

    Google Scholar 

  • Flandin, S., Salini, D., Drakos, A., & Poizat, G. (2020). Diseñar capacitaciones que faciliten la emergencia de nuevas significaciones frente a situaciones inéditas y críticas: curso de la expereincia y perturbaciones de la actividad. Laboreal, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.4000/laboreal.17042

  • Flandin, S., Poizat, G., & Perinet, R. (2021). Proactivité et réactivité: deux orientations pour concevoir des dispositifs visant le développement de la sécurité industrielle par la formation – Les leçons du projet FOResilience. FonCSI.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grossman, R., Heyne, K., & Salas, E. (2015). Game- and simulation-based approaches to training. In K. Kraiger, J. Passmore, N. Rebelo dos Santos, & S. Malvezzi (Eds.), The Wiley Blackwell handbook of the psychology of training, development, and performance improvement (pp. 205–223). Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horcik, Z., & Durand, M. (2015). L’expérience mimétique dans l’apprentissage adulte: le cas des formations par simulation. Revue Suisse des Sciences de l’Éducation, 37, 167–186.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horcik, Z., Savoldelli, G., Poizat, G., & Durand, M. (2014). A phenomenological approach to novice nurse anesthetists’ experience during simulation-based training sessions. Simulation in Healthcare, 9, 94–101.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Malet, D., Falzon, P., & Vidal-Gomel, C. (2019a). Developing patient handling competences through participatory design of simulation scenarios. In T. Cotrim, F. Serranheira, P. Sousa, S. Hignett, S. Albolino, & R. Tartaglia (Eds.), Health and social Care Systems of the Future: Demographic changes, digital age and human factors – Proceedings of the healthcare ergonomics and patient safety (pp. 357–364). Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Malet, D., Falzon, P., & Vidal-Gomel, C. (2019b). La conception participative en simulation: un moyen de développement du « soin de manutention raisonné ». Communication au 5ème Colloque International de Didactique Professionnelle, Longueuil, Québec.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moreau de Bellaing, C. (2002). Former, informer, conformer: Enseigner à l’École nationale de police de Paris. Les Cahiers de la Sécurité Intérieure, 48, 57–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moreau de Bellaing, C. (2006). La police dans l’État de droit. Les dispositifs de formation initiale et de contrôle interne de la police nationale dans la France contemporaine. Thèse de doctorat en science politique, Institut d’études politiques, Paris.

    Google Scholar 

  • Phelps, J., Strype, J., Le Bellu, S., Lahlou, S., & Aandal, J. (2018). Experiential learning and simulation-based training in Norwegian police education: Examining body-worn video as a tool to encourage reflection. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 12, 50–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pichonnaz, D. (2011). Réformer les pratiques policières par la formation: Les obstacles à la transformation des relations entre les policiers et leurs publics. Déviance et Société, 35, 335–359.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Poizat, G., Durand, M., & Theureau, J. (2016). Challenges of activity analysis oriented towards professional training. Le Travail Humain, 79, 233–258.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schot, S., Flandin, S., Goudeaux, A., Seferdjeli, L., & Poizat, G. (2019). Formation basée sur la perturbation: preuve de concept par la conception d’un environnement numérique de formation en radiologie médicale. Activités, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.4000/activites.4724

  • Sjöberg, D. (2014). Why don’t they catch the baby? A study of a simulation of a critical incident in police education. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 66, 212–231.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Staller, M., Cole, J., Zaiser, B., & Körner, S. (2019). Representative training with less risk: The effects of non-lethal training and conventional ammunition in police use of force training on heart rate variability. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 13, 411–425.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stokoe, E. (2013). The (in)authenticity of simulated talk: Comparing role-played and actual interaction and the implications for communication training. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 46, 165–185.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Theureau, J. (2002). Dynamic, living, social and cultural complex systems: Principles of design-oriented analysis. Revue d’Intelligence Artificielle, 16, 485–516.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Theureau, J. (2003). Course-of-action analysis and course-of-action centered design. In E. Hollnagel (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive task design (pp. 55–81). Lawrence Erlbaum.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Theureau, J. (2004). Le cours d’action: Méthode élémentaire. Octarès.

    Google Scholar 

  • Theureau, J. (2010a). La constitution des savoirs dans l’action. Intellectica, 53(54), 95–127.

    Google Scholar 

  • Theureau, J. (2010b). Les entretiens d’auto-confrontation et de remise en situation par les traces matérielles et le programme de recherche « cours d’action ». Revue d’Anthropologie des Connaissances, 4, 287–322.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Germain Poizat .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Boembeke, R., De Carvalho, L., Poizat, G. (2022). A Study of Police Cadets’ Activity During Use-of-Force Simulation-Based Training: Empirical Lessons and Insights for Training Design. In: Flandin, S., Vidal-Gomel, C., Becerril Ortega, R. (eds) Simulation Training through the Lens of Experience and Activity Analysis. Professional and Practice-based Learning, vol 30. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89567-9_11

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89567-9_11

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-89566-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-89567-9

  • eBook Packages: EducationEducation (R0)