Skip to main content

Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography: An Alternative to Debriefing for Large-Scale Simulation-Based Training?

  • 84 Accesses

Part of the Professional and Practice-based Learning book series (PPBL,volume 30)

Abstract

Debriefing methods are extensively used in vocational adult education after simulations, but guidelines and structured methods for conducting debriefings lag behind in the literature, even more when comes the necessity to implement them in mass. So, the problem is the following: in a context of simulation-based training, how might we conduct debriefings which enable effective reflection for learners and how to do this on a large scale? This chapter describes how we implemented SEBE (Subjective Evidence -Based Ethnography), a psychological research method based on observation and structured analysis of the learner’s own experience through the prism of Activity Theory, within a police training camp at the Norwegian Police University College. As an alternative to the traditional debriefing provided by the police instructors upon completion of a realistic role-play, 32 police students, organized in pairs and belonging to the same cohort, voluntary participated in a SEBE intervention.

Our findings indicate that the SEBE intervention has promising potential to enable professional educators to quickly train large cohorts during simulation exercises and to offer an alternative to traditional debriefing, thus providing a qualitatively different form of reflexivity to learners and new forms of educational material.

Keywords

  • Debriefing
  • Professional Training
  • Police
  • Activity Theory
  • Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography
  • Learning

The research reported here was conducted in the framework of a European post-doctoral research project for which the first author was awarded an Intra-European Marie Curie fellowship (EC grant agreement n°330709).

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-89567-9_10
  • Chapter length: 23 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-89567-9
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Notes

  1. 1.

    Politihøgskolen (http://www.phs.no/en/).

  2. 2.

    We had to choose the most relevant simulation as a “pilot” use-case well in advance of the actual research, in order to adapt to the operative training in agreement with local police instructors. This required an in-depth reading and understanding of educational material and making choices without having observed cases prior to the actual research.

  3. 3.

    Audio-video data collected can be sensitive either from a private perspective for the participant or from an institutional viewpoint, since this organization trains the future police officers of the country to specific techniques.

  4. 4.

    Norwegian Centre for Research Data (https://nsd.no/nsd/english/index.html).

  5. 5.

    These key times were identified during the research design phase, when reading the educational material.

References

  • Argyris, C., & Schon, D. A. (1974). Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. Jossey-Bas.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bedny, G., & Karwowski, W. (2004). Activity theory as a basis for the study of work. Ergonomics, 47(2), 134–153.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bobillier Chaumon, M.-É., Rouat, S., Laneyrie, E., & Cuvillier, B. (2018). De l’activité DE simulation à l’activité EN simulation: simuler pour stimuler. Activites, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.4000/activites.3136

  • Bruner, J. S. (1968). Towards a theory of instruction (1st ed 1966). Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Clot, Y., & Leplat, J. (2005). La méthode clinique en ergonomie et en psychologie du travail. Le Travail Humain, 68, 289–316.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Conein, B. (1990). Cognition située et coordination de l’action, la cuisine dans tous ses états. Réseaux, 8(43), 99–110.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cranach, M. Von (1982). Goal-directed action. Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cranach, M. Von, et al. (1982). Goal-directed action. In European monographs in social psychology 30. Academic Press in co-operation with European Association of Experimental Social Psychology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drobnjak, M. (1997, October 14–16). Using head mounted video camera to aid recall of events during military activities. In 39th Annual Conference of the International Military Testing Association.

    Google Scholar 

  • Drover, P., & Ariel, B. (2015). Leading an experiment in police body-worn video cameras. Int Crim Justice Rev, 25(1), 80–97. https://doi.org/10.1177/1057567715574374

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Engeström, Y. (2000). Activity theory as a framework for analyzing and redesigning work. Ergonomics, 43(7), 960–974.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Everri, M., Heitmayer, M., Yamin-Slotkus, P., & Lahlou, S. (2020). Ethical challenges of using video for qualitative research and ethnography. In Ethnography with a twist. Methodological and ethical challenges and solutions in contemporary research. Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fanning, R. M., & Gaba, D. M. (2007). The role of debriefing in simulation-based learning. Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, 2(2), 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1097/SIH.0b013e3180315539

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fauquet-Alekhine, P. (2016). Subjective ethnographic protocol for work activity analysis and occupational training improvement. British Journal of Applied Science and Technology, 12(5), 1-16-843.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Fleck, R., & Fitzpatrick, G. (2009). Teachers’ and tutors’ social reflection around SenseCam images. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67(12), 1024–1036. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2009.09.004

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gillespie, A. (2007). The social basis of self-reflection. In A. Rosa & J. Valsiner (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of sociocultural psychology. Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ginsburg, G. P., Brenner, M., von Cranach, M., Eiser, R., & Scherer, K. (1985). Discovery strategies in the psychology of action. Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Goldman, R., Pea, R., Barron, B., & Derry, S. (2007). Video research in the learning sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hutchins, E. L. (1995). Cognition in the wild. MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice-H.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lahlou, S. (1999). Observing cognitive work in offices. In N. Streitz, J. Siegel, V. Hartkopf, & S. Konomi (Eds.), Cooperative buildings. Integrating information, organizations and architecture (Vol. 1670, pp. 150–163). Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lahlou, S. (2011). How can we capture the subject’s perspective? An evidence-based approach for the social scientist. Social Science Information, 50(3), 607–655. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018411411033

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lahlou, S. (2017). Installation theory: The societal construction and regulation of behaviour. In Installation theory: The societal construction and regulation of behaviour. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316480922

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lahlou, S., Le Bellu, S., & Boesen-Mariani, S. (2015). Subjective evidence based ethnography: Method and applications. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 49(2), 216–238. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12124-014-9288-9

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lave, J. (1988). Cognition in practice. Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lave, J., & Wenger, E. C. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge University Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Le Bellu, S. (2016). Learning the secrets of the craft through the real-time experience of experts: Capturing and transferring professional expert tacit knowledge to novices. Perspectives Interdisciplinaires Sur Le Travail et La Santé (PISTES), 18(1). https://doi.org/10.4000/pistes.4685

  • Le Bellu, S., Lahlou, S., & Nosulenko, V. (2010). Capter et transférer le savoir incorporé dans un geste professionnel. Social Science Information, 49(3), 371–413. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018410372582

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Le Bellu, S., Lahlou, S., Nosulenko, V., & Samoylenko, E. (2016). Studying activity in manual work: A framework for analysis and training. Le Travail Humain, 79(1), 7–28. https://doi.org/10.3917/th.791.0007

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Leontiev, A. N. (1978). Activity, consciousness, and personality. Prentice Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leplat, J., & Cuny, X. (1974). Les accidents du travail. PUF.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lomov, B. F. (1982). The problem of activity in psychology. Soviet Psychology, 21, 55–91.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lum, C., Stoltz, M., Koper, C. S., & Scherer, J. A. (2019). Research on body-worn cameras. Criminology & Public Policy, 18(1), 93–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12412

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lyons, R., Lazzara, E. H., Benishek, L. E., Zajac, S., Gregory, M., Sonesh, S. C., & Salas, E. (2015). Enhancing the effectiveness of team debriefings in medical simulation: More best practices. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 41(3), 115–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1553-7250(15)41016-5

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mackenzie, S. H., & Kerr, J. H. (2012). Head-mounted cameras and stimulated recall in qualitative sport research. Qual Res Sport Exerc Health, 4(1), 51–61. https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2011.653495

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nardi, B. (1996). Context and consciousness: Activity theory and human computer interaction. MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Norges offentlige utredninger. (2009: 12). Et ansvarlig politi: Åpenhet, kontroll, og læring [A responsible police force: Openness, control, and learning].

    Google Scholar 

  • Norges offentlige utredninger. (2012: 14). Rapport fra 22. juli kommisjon [Report from the July 22nd commision].

    Google Scholar 

  • Norges offentlige utredninger. (2013: 9). Ett politi: rustet til å møte fremtidens utfordringer. Politianalysen. [One police: ready to meet future challenges. Analysis of the police].

    Google Scholar 

  • Nosulenko, V., & Samoylenko, E. (2009). Psychological methods for the study of augmented environments. In S. Lahlou (Ed.), Designing user friendly augmented work environments. From meeting rooms to digital collaborative spaces (pp. 213–236). Springer.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nosulenko, V. N., Barabanshikov, V. A., Brushlinsky, A. V., & Rabardel, P. (2005). Man–technology interaction: Some of the Russian approaches. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 6(5), 359–383. https://doi.org/10.1080/14639220500070051

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ombredanne, A., & Faverge, J.-M. (1955). L’analyse du travail. Facteur d’économie humaine et de productivité. PUF.

    Google Scholar 

  • Omodei, M. M., McLennan, J., & Wearing, A. J. (2005). How expertise is applied in real-world settings: Head mounted video and cued recall as a methodology for studying routines of decision making. In T. Betsch & S. Haberstrohe (Eds.), The routines of decision making (pp. 271–288). Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Paradise, R., & Rogoff, B. (2009). Side by side: Learning by observing and pitching in cultural practices in support of learning. Ethos, 37(1), 102–138. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-1352.2009.01033.x.LEARNING

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Pastré, P. (2005). Apprendre par la simulation. De l’analyse du travail aux apprentissages professionnels. Octares Editions.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pea, R. D., & Kurland, D. M. (1984). On the cognitive effects of learning computer programming. New Ideas in Psychology, 2(2), 137–168.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Phelps, J. M., Strype, J., Le Bellu, S., Lahlou, S., & Aandal, J. (2016). Experiential learning and simulation-based training in Norwegian police education: Examining body-worn video as a tool to encourage reflection. Policing, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1093/police/paw014

  • Pinsky, L., & Theureau, J. (1987). Description of visual “action” in natural situations. In J. K. O’Regan & A. Levy-Schoen (Eds.), Eye movements: From physiology to cognition, selected/edited proceedings of the 3rd European conference on eye movements. Dourdan, France. Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  • Politihøgskolen. (2014). Fagplan for bachelorstudiet BIII, (Curriculum for third-year bachelor’s studies). http://www.phs.no/Documents/5_Studenter/Fagplaner/Fagplan%20B3%202014-2015.pdf

  • Rabardel, P. (1997). Des instruments et des hommes: propositions pour une conception centrée utilisateurs. Int J Des and Innov Res, 10, 7–20.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rabardel, P. (2005). 13. Instrument, activité et développement du pouvoir d’agir. In Entre connaissance et organisation: l’activité collective (pp. 251–265). https://doi.org/10.3917/dec.lorin.2005.01.0251

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rasmussen, J. (1983). Skills, rules, and knowledge; signals, signs, and symbols, and other distinctions in human performance models. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC-13(3), 257–266. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSMC.1983.6313160

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rieken, J. C. (2013). Making situated police practice visible: A study examining professional activity for the maintenance of social control with video data from the field. London School of Economics and Political Science.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rix, G., & Biache, M.-J. (2004). Enregistrement en perspective subjective située et entretien en re situ subjectif: une méthodologie de constitution de l’expérience. Intellectica, 363–396.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rossignol, M. (2017). Effects of video-assisted debriefing compared with standard Oral debriefing. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 13(4), 145–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecns.2016.12.001

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rubinstein, S. L. (1922a). Le principe de l’activité du sujet dans sa dimension créative. In P. Rabardel (Ed.), Rubinstein aujourd’hui. Nouvelles figure de l’activité humaine (pp. 129–140). Octarès/Maison des sciences de l’homme.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rubinstein, S. L. (1922b). Le principe de l’activité du sujet dans sa dimension créative. In V. Nosulenko & P. Rabardel (Eds.), Rubinstein aujourd’hui. Nouvelles figure de l’activité humaine (pp. 129–140). Octarès/Maison des sciences de l’homme.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rubinstein, S. L. (1940). Osnovy obshej psikhologii (Foundations of General Psychology). In Génie logiciel et système expert. Moscou: Edition “Utchpedgiz.”

    Google Scholar 

  • Sawyer, T., Eppich, W., Brett-Fleegler, M., Grant, V., & Cheng, A. (2016, June 1). More than one way to debrief: A critical review of healthcare simulation debriefing methods. Simulation in Healthcare, 11, 209–217. https://doi.org/10.1097/SIH.0000000000000148

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schön, D. (1983). The reflexive practitioner. How professional think in action. Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sjöberg, D., & Karp, S. (2012). Video–based debriefing enhances reflection, motivation and performance for Police students in realistic scenario training. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 2816–2824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.570

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Söderström, T., Karp, S., & Sjöberg, D. (2016). Developing police students’ professional knowing through scenario training: The impact of preparation, implementation and debriefing. EDULEARN16 Proceedings, 1, 5930–5935. https://doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2016.0258

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stetsenko, A. (2005). Activity as object-related: Resolving the dichotomy of individual and collective planes of activity. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 12(1), 70–88.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Suchman, L. (1987). Plans and situated actions. The problem of human-machine communication. Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suchman, L., & Trigg, R. (1991). Understanding practice: Video as a medium for reflection and design. In J. Greenbaum & M. Kyng (Eds.), Design at work: Cooperative design of computer systems (pp. 65–89). Lawrence Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Theureau, J. (2003). Course-of-action-centered design. In E. Hollnagel (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive task design (pp. 55–81). CRC Press.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ulmer, F. F., Sharara-Chami, R., Lakissian, Z., Stocker, M., Scott, E., & Dieckmann, P. (2018). Cultural prototypes and differences in simulation debriefing. Simulation in Healthcare, 13(4), 239–246. https://doi.org/10.1097/SIH.0000000000000320

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Voigt, R., Camp, N. P., Prabhakaran, V., Hamilton, W. L., Hetey, R. C., Griffiths, C. M., … Eberhardt, J. L. (2017). Language from police body camera footage shows racial disparities in officer respect. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 114(25), 6521–6526. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1702413114

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wenger, E. C. (2000). Communities of practice and social learning systems. Organization, 7(2), 225–246.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Sophie Le Bellu .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Le Bellu, S., Lahlou, S., Phelps, J.M., Aandal, J. (2022). Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography: An Alternative to Debriefing for Large-Scale Simulation-Based Training?. In: Flandin, S., Vidal-Gomel, C., Becerril Ortega, R. (eds) Simulation Training through the Lens of Experience and Activity Analysis. Professional and Practice-based Learning, vol 30. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89567-9_10

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89567-9_10

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-89566-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-89567-9

  • eBook Packages: EducationEducation (R0)