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The Implementation of Connectivity Area in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil): Biodiversity Integration Through Regional Environmental Planning

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Abstract

Human-driven biodiversity loss poses a major threat for the maintenance of life on earth. Land-use change is one of the major causes for that, as it profoundly reshapes ecosystems and its functions, especially due to landscape fragmentation. In order to face these challenges, Brazil has committed to global environmental agendas, presenting local and regional governments with an urgent call for action. To respond to this, local authorities are faced with several limitations and challenges of administrative, technical and budgetary nature. In addition to this, natural resources are not limited by geo-political municipal boundaries, requiring integrated regional management. In this sense, this paper aims to describe how the Municipality of Campinas and the 19 cities from its highly urbanized and industrialized metropolitan region have articulated the RECONECTA-RMC program, proposing a Connectivity Area that conjoins environmentally relevant areas of the region with the goal to protect fauna and flora, building environmental resilience and genetic flow between green areas. The methodology utilized for tracing the connectivity area included the use of geoprocessing tools with official databases and participatory methodologies, in an attempt to meet the demands of all stakeholders and define joint strategies for the involvement of political, institutional and technical organizations that could support the development of the work (with input of information, demands, technical cooperation and validation of results). Subsequently, a collaborative fine tuning and evaluation of the area was conducted, and an Ecosystem Services Assessment identified the major categories and intensity of provision over the Connectivity Area. As a result, this co-produced proposal has been included as a Strategic Area for Metropolitan Action at the Integrated Urban Development Plan of Campinas (Plano de Desenvolvimento Urbano Integrado – PDUI), a term of cooperation has been signed between the 20 municipalities of the Metropolitan Region to formalize the commitment with the RECONECTA-RMC program and working groups have been established to discuss issues especially relevant for the implementation of the Connectivity Area (urban green areas; linear parks; ecological corridors; local wild fauna; inspection, compensation and regulation; communication and articulation).

Keywords

  • Nature-Based Solutions
  • Shared governance
  • Co-creation
  • Spatial planning
  • Metropolitan Region of Campinas

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Notes

  1. 1.

    National Landscape Connectivity Program (Conecta); National Plan for the Recovery of Native Vegetation (Planaveg); Information and Management System for Protected Areas and Environmental Interest of the State of São Paulo (SIGAP); Ecological-Economic Zoning of the State of São Paulo; Expansion Plan for Protected Areas in the State of São Paulo (in preparation).

  2. 2.

    Artur Nogueira, Campinas, Cosmópolis, Hortolândia, Indaiatuba, Itatiba, Jaguariúna, Monte Mor, Morungaba, Paulínia, Pedreira, Santa Bárbara D’Oeste and Valinhos.

  3. 3.

    Ministry of the Environment, Ministry of Cities; ICMBIO; SVDS; Metropolitan Region of Campinas Agency (AGEMCAMP); Cosmópolis Municipal Secretariat for the Environment; Municipal Secretary of Environment of Santa Bárbara d’Oeste; Municipal Secretariat for the Environment of Pedreira; Sorocaba Municipal Secretariat for the Environment; Municipal Secretary of Environment of Morungaba; Municipal Secretariat for the Environment of Valinhos; Hortolândia Municipal Secretariat for the Environment; Municipal Environment Secretariat of Monte Mor; Jaguariúna Municipal Secretariat for the Environment; Americana Department of the Environment; Campinas Agronomic Institute; Zootechnics Institute; Paraná State Secretariat for Urban Development; Paranácia Institute; Londrina Municipal Secretariat for the Environment; Belo Horizonte Municipal Secretariat for the Environment; Metropolitan Region Agency of Campinas; José Pedro de Oliveira Foundation – FJPO – Manager of A.R.I.E. Mata de Santa Geneva; São Paulo State Secretariat for the Environment; UNICAMP; Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas (PUC-Campinas).

Abbreviations

AC:

Connectivity Area;

Agemcamp:

Campinas Metropolitan Agency;

BMUB:

German Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation, Construction and Nuclear Safety;

CBC:

Center for Biodiversity and Cities;

CBD:

Convention on Biological Diversity;

Conecta:

National Landscape Connectivity Program;

EMPLASA:

Paulista Metropolitan Planning Company SA;

EPANB:

National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan;

ES:

Ecosystem Services;

FJPO:

José Pedro de Oliveira Foundation;

FPIC:

Public Functions of Common Interest;

GAEMA:

Special Action Group for the Defense of the Environment;

GHG:

Greenhouse Gases;

GIZ:

German International Cooperation Agency;

Habitat III:

Third United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development;

IAC:

Campina’s Institute of Agronomy;

IKI:

International Climate Initiative;

Km:

Kilometer;

MDG:

Millennium Development Goals;

MRC:

Metropolitan Region of Campinas;

PCJ:

Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí;

PDUI:

Integrated Urban Development Plan;

Planaveg:

National Plan for the Recovery of Native Vegetation;

PMC:

Campinas City Hall;

PMV:

Municipal Green Plan;

PUC:

Pontifical Catholic University;

SDG:

Sustainable Development Goals;

SIGAP:

Information and Management System for Protected Areas and Environmental Interest of the State of São Paulo;

SIMA:

São Paulo State Environment Secretariat;

SNUC:

National System of Conservation Units;

SP:

São Paulo;

SVDS:

Secretariat of Green, Environment and Sustainable Development;

TEEB:

The Economics of Ecosystem Services;

UFZ:

Helmholtz Zentrum für Umweltforschung;

WRI:

World Resource Institute.

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Acknowledgments

The SVDS, representing the city of Campinas, and the 20 municipalities that signed the cooperation agreement to implement INTERACT-Bio and RECONECTA RMC are fundamental actors for the success of this initiative. ICLEI South America also provided technical support and expertise on the integration of sustainability to the urban agenda, promoting and developing the project’s activities. To provide legal anchorage and longevity to the project, it was fundamental to have the involvement of regional agencies such as EMPLASA and Agemcamp. Also, Public Ministry’s Special Action Group for the Defense of the Environment (Grupo de Atuação Especial de Defesa do Meio Ambiente – GAEMA) supported the initiative by providing data for the consolidation of the Connectivity Area and is a key stakeholder for guaranteeing that the initiative will in fact permeate regional land use planning policies.

National, state and regional institutions were also fundamental for technically and politically supporting the initiative. The PCJ Basin Committee (Comitê de Bacias do PCJ, committee responsible for managing the Water Basin of the Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí rivers, where the MRC is situated) and the Fundação Florestal (state association that promotes forest conservation) provided data and information for the establishment of the first version of the Connectivity Area such as maps of the hydrography, conservation units and roads on the region.

This project was made possible by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) through the International Climate Initiative (IKI), financier of INTERACT-Bio. Support from the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) was also essential, mainly on the technical aspects of the project, such as the development of the workshops and capacity building meetings. Human resources from ICLEI South America and from the 20 municipalities, as well as mobilization for the meetings (travels and events), were key financial factors in the process. Support was also provided by the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ), mainly through the Local Protected Areas project.

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Correspondence to Gabriel Dias Mangolini Neves .

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Neves, G.D.M. et al. (2022). The Implementation of Connectivity Area in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (São Paulo, Brazil): Biodiversity Integration Through Regional Environmental Planning. In: Mahmoud, I.H., Morello, E., Lemes de Oliveira, F., Geneletti, D. (eds) Nature-based Solutions for Sustainable Urban Planning. Contemporary Urban Design Thinking. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89525-9_7

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