Skip to main content

(Research): Science for Management Advice in the Arctic Ocean: The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES)

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Building Common Interests in the Arctic Ocean with Global Inclusion

Part of the book series: Informed Decisionmaking for Sustainability ((IDS))

  • 346 Accesses

Abstract

The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea was established in 1902 and is one of the oldest marine science institutions in the world. It has aged well – today it provides scientific advice for the management of the marine environment and the natural resources there to governments and regional commissions for fisheries and environment in the Northeast Atlantic. It has 20 member nations and a network of 6000 scientists and 700 institutes as the foundation of its activities, spanning from basic marine science via data management to the provision of scientific advice on marine management. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the ICES organization and its functions, discuss its provision of scientific advice and thereby its role at the science-policy interface in the North Atlantic and the Arctic, including how this role is changing with the development of integrated, ecosystem based management of the oceans. The final part of the chapter addresses the current governance of Arctic marine science and its science – policy interfaces.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 179.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. 1.

    https://oceandecade.org/assets/The_Science_We_Need_For_The_Ocean_We_Want.pdf

  2. 2.

    See the Sea Ice Index of the National Snow and Ice Data Center: https://nsidc.org/data/seaice_index/

  3. 3.

    See the Arctic Ocean Review phase I report for a discussion of which ocean areas that constitute the Arctic Ocean.

  4. 4.

    http://www.ices.dk/about-ICES/who-we-are/Pages/Who-we-are.aspx

  5. 5.

    See also the ICES website at http://www.ices.dk/about-ICES/who-we-are/Pages/Our-history.aspx

  6. 6.

    The convention text can be found here: http://www.ices.dk/about-ICES/who-we-are/Documents/ICES_Convention_1964.pdf

  7. 7.

    http://www.ices.dk/about-ICES/who-we-are/Documents/CPH_declaration_2002.pdf

  8. 8.

    http://www.ices.dk/about-ICES/who-we-are/Documents/CPH_declaration_2002.pdf

  9. 9.

    The ICES convention specifies its location to be in Copenhagen.

  10. 10.

    http://www.ices.dk/community/groups/Pages/SCICOM.aspx

  11. 11.

    http://www.ices.dk/community/groups/Pages/SIHD.aspx

  12. 12.

    Cfr the Effects of Climate Change on the World’s Oceans quadrennial conference series. https://meetings.pices.int/meetings/international/2018/climate-change/Background

  13. 13.

    https://academic.oup.com/icesjms

  14. 14.

    http://admin.ices.dk/Submissions/index.aspx?t=1

  15. 15.

    Article 14 of the NEAFC Convention. https://www.neafc.org/system/files/Text-of-NEAFC-Convention-04.pdf

  16. 16.

    In a report of the first meeting of ICES in 1902, it was noted that the funding from governments was conditioned by the need for knowledge for fisheries management. “Practical results of direct value to the fisheries are sought for” (Nature, 1902).

  17. 17.

    https://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/closindx.htm

  18. 18.

    https://www.un.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/fish_stocks_agreement/CONF164_37.htm

  19. 19.

    http://www.ices.dk/community/groups/Pages/ACOM.aspx

  20. 20.

    https://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2020/2020/Guide_to_ICES_Advice.pdf

  21. 21.

    https://www.ices.dk/advice/Pages/default.aspx

  22. 22.

    Cod, haddock, capelin, Greenland halibut, and redfish.

  23. 23.

    These agreements are subject to annual review in reports to Parliament in Norway.

  24. 24.

    The world’s northernmost fisheries are on the Northern flank of Norway’s Svalbard archipelago, well inside its 200-mile zone.

  25. 25.

    NEAFC has seven contracting parties: The European Union, the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, Norway, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom. The UK became a contracting party in 2020 following Brexit.

  26. 26.

    Statement by NEAFC regarding the conclusion of the negotiations on the Agreement to Prevent Unregulated High Seas Fisheries in the Central Arctic Ocean. https://www.neafc.org/system/files/NEAFC-statement_Central-Arctic-Ocean-Agreement.pdf

  27. 27.

    NEAFC Convention article 14.

  28. 28.

    https://www.neafc.org/system/files/ices_mou-2019.pdf

  29. 29.

    Canada, Denmark/Greenland, Norway, the Russian Federation, USA, China, the Republic of Korea, Japan, Iceland and the EU.

  30. 30.

    The agreement requires that all 10 parties have ratified for it to enter into force. By the end of 2020 nine out of 10 signatories have ratified.

  31. 31.

    Currently, a Provisional Scientific Coordination Group has held one meeting.

  32. 32.

    Observer status, as well as functions in relation to working groups.

  33. 33.

    http://www.ices.dk/community/groups/Pages/WGICA.aspx . The mandate of WGICA is here: http://www.ices.dk/community/Documents/Science%20EG%20ToRs/IEASG/2019%20-%202020/WGICA%20resolution%202019-2021.pdf

  34. 34.

    http://www.ices.dk/advice/Fisheries-overviews/Pages/fisheries-overviews.aspx

  35. 35.

    https://www.ices.dk/advice/ESD/pages/preview.aspx?diagramid=52

  36. 36.

    http://www.ices.dk/advice/ESD/Pages/Ecosystem-overviews.aspx

  37. 37.

    http://www.ices.dk/advice/ICES%20ecoregions%20and%20advisory%20areas/Pages/ICES-ecosystems-and-advisory-areas.aspx

  38. 38.

    https://ioc.unesco.org

  39. 39.

    https://oceandecade.org

  40. 40.

    https://iasc.info

  41. 41.

    https://www.arcticscienceministerial.org/files/ASM2_Joint_Statement.pdf

  42. 42.

    Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme.

  43. 43.

    Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna.

  44. 44.

    Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment.

  45. 45.

    Emergency Prevention and Preparedness and Response.

  46. 46.

    Arctic Contaminants Action Programme.

  47. 47.

    Sustainable Development Working Group.

  48. 48.

    https://www.arcticobserving.org/images/pdf/Board_meetings/5th_tromso/nuuk_declaration_final.pdf

  49. 49.

    https://www.arcticobserving.org/images/pdf/Strategy_and_Implementation/SAON_Strategy_2018-2028_version_16MAY2018.pdf

  50. 50.

    https://www.oceandecade.org

  51. 51.

    https://www.ices.dk/community/groups/Pages/WGICA.aspx

  52. 52.

    https://www.ices.dk/news-and-events/news-archive/news/Pages/A-healthy-ocean.aspx

References

Download references

Acknowledgement

I am grateful to Kåre Nolde Nielsen and two anynomous reviewers for comments to an earlier version of this chapter.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alf Håkon Hoel .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Hoel, A.H. (2022). (Research): Science for Management Advice in the Arctic Ocean: The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). In: Berkman, P.A., Vylegzhanin, A.N., Young, O.R., Balton, D.A., Øvretveit, O.R. (eds) Building Common Interests in the Arctic Ocean with Global Inclusion. Informed Decisionmaking for Sustainability. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89312-5_25

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics