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(Research): Evolution of Arctic Exploration from National Interest to Multinational Investment

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Part of the Informed Decisionmaking for Sustainability book series (IDS)

Abstract

The history of exploring the Arctic, long considered a remote and obscure region, has profoundly shaped the regime for governing the Arctic that exists today. The impacts of climate change and the increasing pressure of globalization that are affecting the Arctic are also changing the nature of exploration. The interconnected phenomena of exploration and climate change have led to heightened awareness of the Arctic worldwide and have sparked geopolitical interest and competition. This chapter mainly examines the central aspects of changing Arctic exploration from nation-state interests to the endeavors of oil and gas companies, among others. It will also consider the ways in which exploration is increasing the geopolitical and economic importance of the region for states. The chapter thus will contribute to the debate over the impact of exploration on political and economic interests in the Arctic.

Keywords

  • Exploration
  • Science
  • Climate Change
  • Geopolitics
  • Oil and Gas
  • Governance

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  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-89312-5_15
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Notes

  1. 1.

    Archives of the First International Polar Year, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of US Department of Commerce – University of Washington (https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/arctic-zone/ipy-1/US-Barrow-P1.htm) Access in August 2020.

  2. 2.

    IASC book, p:56. (https://view.joomag.com/iasc-25-years/0102946001421148178?short&) Access in August 2020.

  3. 3.

    International Polar years are held in 1882–1883, 1932–1933, 1957–1958 (also known as International Geophysical Year) and finally in 2007–2008.

  4. 4.

    For example, the interview conducted in 26 May 2019 with a scientist from Arctic Institute of St Petersburg, the name of the interlocutor is confidential.

  5. 5.

    Interview, Ørjan Birkeland, Project manager for the Northern Area Project at Equinor. (22 May 2020)

  6. 6.

    Ibidem.

  7. 7.

    Equinor website, (https://www.equinor.com/en/what-we-do/responsible-drilling-in-the-barents-sea.html) Access in February 2020.

  8. 8.

    Ibid.

  9. 9.

    Scheyder Ernest, Soldatkin Vladimir, « Exxon quits some Russian joint ventures citing sanctions », Reuters, 28 February 2018. (https://www.reuters.com/article/us-exxon-mobil-russia-rosneft-oil/exxon-quits-some-russian-joint-ventures-citing-sanctions-idUSKCN1GC39B) Access in May 2020.

  10. 10.

    “How far do EU-US sanctions on Russia go?”, BBC News, 15 September 2014. Access in August 2020. (https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-28400218).

  11. 11.

    Interview, Ørjan Birkeland, Project manager for the Northern Area Project at Equinor. (22 May 2020).

  12. 12.

    Interview, Pierre Giboin, Responsable of Yamal LNG Shipping Department at Total. (13 June 2019).

  13. 13.

    Staalesen Atle, « Rosneft tells Putin its new Arctic project will be biggest in global oil”, The Barents Observer, 11 February 2020. Access in May 2020. (https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/2020/02/rosneft-tells-putin-its-new-arctic-project-will-be-biggest-global-oil).

  14. 14.

    Interview, Rasmus Bertelsen, Professor of Political Science at the Arctic University of Norway. (12 May 2020).

  15. 15.

    Interview, Ørjan Birkeland, Project manager in the Northern Area Unit at Equinor. (22 May 2020).

  16. 16.

    Interview, Alexander Sergunin, Professor of Political Science at the St. Petersbourg State University. (08 June 2020).

  17. 17.

    Attempt of interview with an executive at Total. (15 May 2020).

  18. 18.

    https://arctic-council.org/index.php/en/our-work/agreements Access in January 2020.

  19. 19.

    European Commission, 2018 https://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/eu-and-arctic-partners-enter-historic-agreement-prevent-unregulated-fishing-high-seas-–-frequently_en Access in January 2020.

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Correspondence to Eda Ayaydin .

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Ayaydin, E. (2022). (Research): Evolution of Arctic Exploration from National Interest to Multinational Investment. In: Berkman, P.A., Vylegzhanin, A.N., Young, O.R., Balton, D.A., Øvretveit, O.R. (eds) Building Common Interests in the Arctic Ocean with Global Inclusion. Informed Decisionmaking for Sustainability. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-89312-5_15

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