Skip to main content

Jake and Ellen in Transition: On Clarissa Sligh’s Mutable Bodies

  • 89 Accesses

Part of the Palgrave Studies in (Re)Presenting Gender book series (PSRG)


rl goldberg’s contribution focuses on Clarissa Sligh’s photography project Wrongly Bodied (2009), which tracks two gender transitions: that of Jake McBee, a transgender man transitioning in Texas, and that of Ellen Craft, a formerly enslaved woman who passed as a white disabled man to escape slavery. Drawing on theories of the archive by Ann Cvetkovich, Diana Taylor, and Jacques Derrida, goldberg argues that by pairing Jake and the Crafts’s narratives, Wrongly Bodied reframes both the nineteenth-century story of racial passing and the twenty-first-century story of trans ‘passing’. It thus produces new understandings of trans materiality and strategies of narrativization that reject dominant discourses of mid-twentieth-century sexology and generates insights into the workings of the archive and the law.


  • Transgender
  • Passing
  • Archive
  • Racialization
  • Photography

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   19.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-88604-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   29.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)


  1. 1.

    This is a point compellingly made by C. Riley Snorton in Black on Both Sides: A Racial History of Trans Identity (2017). For Sligh, turning to the archive of slavery allows for an amplified understanding of crossing, and thereby of transness. Snorton’s intervention is different: like Hortense Spillers, Snorton conceives of slavery as the foundational rupture in gendered syntax, whereby gender becomes enclosed as the property of whiteness, and the enslaved become, in Spillers’s term, “ungendered” (68). Snorton offers the case narrative of J. Marion Sims, the ‘father of modern gynecology’, and his brutal experiments to cure vesicovaginal fistula on enslaved women. For Snorton, Sims is emblematic of the ways in which the enslaved body was used to shore up modern ideas on gender/sex through the abuse of enslaved, ungendered ‘flesh’ (19–20).

  2. 2.

    On racial and gendered passing, see also Werner Sollors’s Neither Black nor White Yet Both: Thematic Explorations of Interracial Literature (1997) and Marjorie Garber’s Vested Interests (1992) respectively. The messiness of the discourse of ‘transracialism’ can be seen at its worst in Rebecca Tuvel’s 2017 article “In Defense of Transracialism” and in the academic community’s beleaguered response to it. The publication of the article immediately resulted in an open letter of opposition, with nearly 900 signatories and a string of resignations on the editorial board.

  3. 3.

    This understanding of trans corresponds with current scholarship in trans studies, like Eliza Steinbock’s use of the term as a cluster “under the holey umbrella of transgender (it doesn’t catch all the possibilities) in order to better stress the gendered elements of subjective identity formation” (2019, viii), or Patrick Califia’s sense that the term transgender registers how gendered ‘boundaries’ are permeable (2003, xiv).

  4. 4.

    Jake says as much when he comments about meeting a trans man for the first time: “I went down there expecting the worse [sic]. But he looked like a guy. He didn’t look like he had five eyes or three noses. You wouldn’t notice him in the street. I was so impressed. I thought, ‘My God that is what I want to be – normal.’ Whatever the hell that is, but I knew I had not been that. I just wanted to go to work and live my life and have my relationships and just be normal” (Sligh 2009, 31).


  • Ahmed, Sara. Queer Phenomenology: Orientations, Objects, Others. Durham: Duke UP, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brubaker, Rogers. Trans: Gender and Race in an Age of Unsettled Identities. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2016.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Califia, Patrick. Sex Changes: Transgender Politics. San Francisco: Cleis Press, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  • Craft, William, and Ellen Craft. Running a Thousand Miles for Freedom. Athens: The U of Georgia P, 1999 [1860].

    Google Scholar 

  • Cvetkovich, Ann. An Archive of Feelings: Trauma, Sexuality, and Lesbian Public Cultures. London: Duke UP, 2003.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Derrida, Jacques. Archive Fever: A Freudian Impression. Chicago: The U of Chicago P, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eng, David, and David Kazanjian. Loss: The Politics of Mourning. Berkeley: U of California P, 2002.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ferguson, Roderick. Aberrations in Black: Toward A Queer of Color Critique. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garber, Marjorie. Vested Interests: Cross-Dressing and Cultural Anxiety. New York: Routledge, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gill-Peterson, Jules. Histories of the Transgender Child. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2018.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hartman, Saidiya. “Venus in Two Acts.” Small Axe 26 (2008): 1–14.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jochem, Greta. “Q&A with Author Christina Crosby.” Boston Magazine, March 28, 2016. Accessed July 16, 2021.

  • Meyerowitz, Joanne. How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Salamon, Gayle. “The Meontology of Masculinity: Notes on Castration Elation.” Parallax 22, no. 3 (2016): 312–322.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sligh, Clarissa T. Wrongly Bodied: Documenting Transition from Female to Male. Asherville: Blue Ridge Printing, 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  • Snorton, C. Riley. Black on Both Sides: A Racial History of Trans Identity. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sollors, Werner. Neither Black nor White Yet Both: Thematic Explorations of Interracial Literature. New York: Oxford UP, 1997.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Spillers, Hortense J. “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book.” Diacritics 17, no. 2 (1987): 65–81.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Steinbock, Eliza. Shimmering Images: Trans Cinema, Embodiment, and the Aesthetics of Change. Durham: Duke UP, 2019.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stryker, Susan. “My Words to Victor Frankenstein Above the Village of Chamounix: Performing Transgender Rage.” GLQ 1, no. 3 (1994): 237–254.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, Diana. The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas. Durham: Duke UP, 2003.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tuvel, Rebecca. “In Defense of Transracialism.” Hypatia 32, no. 2 (2017): 263–278.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

goldberg, r. (2022). Jake and Ellen in Transition: On Clarissa Sligh’s Mutable Bodies. In: Dexl, C., Gerlsbeck, S. (eds) The Male Body in Representation. Palgrave Studies in (Re)Presenting Gender. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.

Download citation