Skip to main content

Cheek and Perioral Cancer

  • 162 Accesses

Abstract

Cheek and perioral cancers are considered from the perspective of historical reconstructive principles and anatomical zones. The nose and lower eyelids, lips and the intraoral cavity are in proximity and may influence the challenges to form and function. The two sentinel goals are to guarantee wide local excision and to prevent the stigma of deformity with aesthetic reconstruction. Metastases to the parotid and neck regions need to be considered in the overall management plans. Whether the cheek defect in a patient is a result of trauma or cancer ablation, the principles of repair as defined by Sir Harold Gillies (1882–1960) are fundamental: lining with mucous membrane, structural stability with bone and cover with skin. A fourth dimension is the importance of normal function including facial expression, speech and swallowing. Reconstructive options include local flaps, regional flaps and free flaps with or without bone grafts. Mandibular and maxillary reconstruction may also be required which exposes the patient’s aerodigestive tract to risk, and therefore, tracheostomy and nutritional support should be considered in the mix.

Keywords

  • Lateral cheek
  • Medial cheek
  • Lower eyelid cheek junction
  • Upper and lower lips
  • Malar and buccal regions
  • Chin

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-88334-8_14
  • Chapter length: 34 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   229.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-88334-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   299.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26

References

  1. Gillies HD. Plastic surgery of the face: based on selected cases of war injuries of the face including burns with original illustrations. Dedicated by special permission to her Majesty Queen Mary. Henry Frowde h (Oxford University Press), Hodder and Stoughton (Warwick Square, E.C.) Facsimile reprint 1983; 1920.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Klaassen MF, Brown E, Behan FC. Simply local flaps. Springer Nature; 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59400-2.

  3. Bamji A. Faces from the front: Harold Gillies, the Queen’s hospital, Sidcup and the origins of modern plastic surgery. England: Helion & Company Limited; 2017.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Coleman JJ. Clinics in plastic surgery: head & neck reconstruction (Jan 1994), Guest editor: M.A. Schusternan, vol 21, no. 1; 1994, pp 113–111.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Menick FJ. Reconstruction of the cheek. JPRS. 2001;108(2):496–504.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Burget GC, Menick FJ. Aesthetic reconstruction of the nose. St Louis: Mosby; 1994.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Ono I, Gunji H, Sato M, Kaneko F. Use of the oblique island flap in excision of small facial tumours. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1993;91(7):1245–51.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Klaassen MF, Frame J, Levick P. Aesthetica in practice: the FLick lift in assisting closure of large cutaneous excisional defects on face. Clin Surg. 2017;2, Article 1684, pp 1–4.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Auersvald A, Auersvald LA, de Lourdes M, Biondo-Simões P. Hemostatic net: an alternative for the prevention of hematoma in rhytidoplasty. Rev Bras Cir Plást. 2012;27(1):22–30.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Burget GC, Murrel GL, Toriumi DM. Aesthetic reconstruction of the confluence of the nose, lip and cheek. Oper Tech Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998;5(1) February:76–88.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Kroll SS. Reconstruction of large lip defects. Oper Tech Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;6(4) November:221–7.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Menick FJ. Subunit reconstruction of the Chin. Oper Tech Plast Reconstr Surg. 1999;6(4) November:212–20.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  13. Soutar D. Personal communication.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Pribaz JJ, et al. A new intraoral flap: facial artery musculomucosal (FAMM) flap. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1992;90(3):421–9.

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  15. Mendelson BC, Jacobson SR. Surgical anatomy of the midcheek: facial layers, spaces and midcheek segments. Clin Plastic Surg. 2008;35:395–404. Elsevier Inc. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cps.2008.02.003.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Yung AE, Que MS, Lo S, Aggarwal S, Hong AM, Tin MM, Low T-H, Clark JR, Gupta R, Ch’ng S. Validation of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging in squamous cell carcinoma of the Vermilion lip. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021;28(6):3092–9. https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09431-4. Published online: 02 January 2021.

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Klaassen, M.F., Burton, I. (2022). Cheek and Perioral Cancer. In: Burton, I., Klaassen, M.F. (eds) Atlas of Extreme Facial Cancer. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-88334-8_14

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-88334-8_14

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-88333-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-88334-8

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)