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Frozen-to-Paraffin: Categorization of Histological Frozen Sections by the Aid of Paraffin Sections and Generative Adversarial Networks

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNIP,volume 12965)


In contrast to paraffin sections, frozen sections can be quickly generated during surgical interventions. This procedure allows surgeons to wait for histological findings during the intervention to base intra-operative decisions on the outcome of the histology. However, compared to paraffin sections, the quality of frozen sections is typically lower, leading to a higher ratio of miss-classification. In this work, we investigated the effect of the section type on automated decision support approaches for classification of thyroid cancer. This was enabled by a data set consisting of pairs of sections for individual patients. Moreover, we investigated, whether a frozen-to-paraffin translation could help to optimize classification scores. Finally, we propose a specific data augmentation strategy to deal with a small amount of training data and to increase classification accuracy even further.


  • Histology
  • Frozen sections
  • Generative adversarial networks
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Data augmentation
  • Whole slide image classification

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Change history

  • 21 September 2021

    In an older version of this paper, there was an error in the affiliation of the author Sebastien Couillard-Despres. This has been corrected.


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This work was partially funded by the County of Salzburg under grant number FHS-2019-10-KIAMed.

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Correspondence to Michael Gadermayr .

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Gadermayr, M. et al. (2021). Frozen-to-Paraffin: Categorization of Histological Frozen Sections by the Aid of Paraffin Sections and Generative Adversarial Networks. In: Svoboda, D., Burgos, N., Wolterink, J.M., Zhao, C. (eds) Simulation and Synthesis in Medical Imaging. SASHIMI 2021. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 12965. Springer, Cham.

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