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Evaluation of Low-Cost Hardware Alternatives for 3D Freehand Ultrasound Reconstruction in Image-Guided Neurosurgery

Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNIP,volume 12967)


The evolution of consumer-grade hardware components (e.g., trackers, portable ultrasound probes) has opened the door for the development of low cost systems. We evaluated different low-cost tracking alternatives on the accuracy of 3D freehand ultrasound reconstruction in the context of image-guided neurosurgery. Specifically, we compared two low-cost tracking options, an Intel RealSense depth camera setup and the OptiTrack camera to a standard commercial infrared optical tracking system, the Atracsys FusionTrack 500. In addition to the tracking systems, we investigated the impact of ultrasound imaging on 3D reconstruction. We compared two ultrasound systems: a low-cost handheld ultrasound system and a high-resolution ultrasound mobile station. Ten acquisitions were made with each tracker and probe pair. Our results showed no statistically significant difference between the two probes and no difference between high and low-end optical trackers. The findings suggest that low cost hardware may offer a solution in the operating room or environments where commercial hardware systems are not available without compromising on the accuracy and usability of US image-guidance.


  • Low cost
  • 3D freehand reconstruction
  • Ultrasound
  • Neurosurgery

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Correspondence to Étienne Léger .

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Léger, É., Gueziri, H.E., Collins, D.L., Popa, T., Kersten-Oertel, M. (2021). Evaluation of Low-Cost Hardware Alternatives for 3D Freehand Ultrasound Reconstruction in Image-Guided Neurosurgery. In: Noble, J.A., Aylward, S., Grimwood, A., Min, Z., Lee, SL., Hu, Y. (eds) Simplifying Medical Ultrasound. ASMUS 2021. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 12967. Springer, Cham.

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