Over the last decades, East Asia has seen one of the most remarkable economic success stories and has gained increasing importance in the world economy. The “East Asian Miracle” started with the rise of the Japanese economy in the 1950s which was soon followed by South Korea and the three remaining so-called “Asian Tigers”. More recently, China presented the most famous Asian success story. This introductory chapter briefly analyzes the catching-up development of the East Asian countries with respect to GDP per capita as well as various other non-economic indicators such as education, infant mortality, and life expectancy. It then provide a short overview of all subsequent chapters of this book.