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Remote Chinese Teaching and Learning at Japanese Universities During the COVID-19 Pandemic

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Abstract

Universities in Japan have been severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. This chapter summarizes Emergent Remote Teaching (ERT) during 2020, based on the results of several large-scale questionnaire surveys of teachers and the students at higher education institutions offering Chinese language education. The findings demonstrated that satisfaction and the desire to continue online education was generally high among students, while teachers were overall less satisfied. This chapter also investigated technology-mediated Chinese language teaching in Japanese universities prior to COVID-19, which paved the way for the ERT. These comprehensive summaries provide insights into key concepts for the sustainable development of Chinese teaching and learning in Japan.

Keywords

  • Remote teaching and learning
  • Chinese language teaching in Japan
  • Survey
  • Faculty and students
  • Technology-mediated Chinese language teaching

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Fig. 9.1

Notes

  1. 1.

    All data are for 2019, except for this point, which is for 2018.

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Acknowledgments

This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 21K00773. We would like to express our gratitude to Professor Kaori Nishi of Meiji Gakuin University in Japan for her assistance in downloading the internal files. Finally, we would like to thank Daniel Roy Pearce of Kyoto Notre Dame University, for his proofreading of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Kazuko Sunaoka .

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Appendices

Appendices

1.1 Appendix 1: Survey Results for Japanese Teachers

   T1 T2 T3 T4
Basic information Institution Keio University JACLE Kyoto University NII
Type Private university Association National university National Institute
Summary of the surveys Time of the questionnaire (in 2020) 5/7–5/13 5/25–6/4 7/22–8/5 8/21–9/7
Target Full-time academic staff Teachers of members Teachers (including part-time) Teachers in Japan (including part-time)
Numbers responded (n) 117 91 1182 909
Response rate (%) 32% N/A 67% N/A
Types of online classes (A) Synchronous 39% 40% 61% 26%
(B) Asynchronous (video materials) 6% 25% 12% 14%
(C) Asynchronous (text materials) 19% 14%
(D) Blended (synchronous +asynchronous) 36% 32% 13% 57%
(E) Others N/A 3% N/A 3%
Views on online classes Satisfied 49% Better 20% Feel effect 20% N/A
About the same 20% Some extent 62%
Unsatisfied 51% Unknown 40% Haven’t really felt 15%
Worse 20% Haven’t felt 3%
Expectation Highly anticipate N/A N/A Online only 21% 48%
Slightly anticipate Hybrid online+face-to-face 22% 43%
Neither Hybrid face-to-face+online 25% 7%
Do not anticipate Return to face-to-face 32% 20%

1.2 Appendix 2: Survey Results for Japanese Students

   S1 S2 S3 S4
Basic information Institution Keio University Tohoku University Kyushu University University of Tokyo
Type Private university National university National university National university
Summary of surveys Time of the questionnaire (in 2020) 5/12–5/18 6/11–6/25 7/22–8/5 7/22–8/20
Target Undergraduates Undergraduates Undergraduates Undergraduates+Postgraduates
Numbers responded (N) N 377 4063 4835 4822
Response rate % 8% 83% 27% 20–30%
Types of online classes (A) Synchronous 39% 7% 95% 75%
(B) Asynchronous(video materials) 6% 83% 69% Few
(C) Asynchronous (text materials) 19% 10% 73% Extremely few
(D) Blended or hybrid (synchronous + asynchronous) 36% N/A 86% N/A
(E) Others N/A   88% N/A
Satisfaction Positive 61% Non-FYS 72% Non-FYS 53% 72%
FYS 54% FYS 20% 20%
Negative 39%
Expectation Positive 68% Online classes Non-FYS 77% Non-FYS 73% 78%
FYS 53% FYS 48%
Negative 32% Face-to-face classes Non-FYS 23% 22%
FYS 47%

Note 1: Regarding the survey sources, see [T1] to [T4] and [S1] to [S4] in Sect. 4.

Note 2: On the types of online classes:

  • The original survey such as [T1], [T2], [S1], and [S4], (B) and (C), (D) and (E) is not clearly differentiated. In the Appendix, based on the distribution tendencies of each institution, five types of (A) to (E) were classified. Type (F) is not included in the Appendix because it did not appear in the questionnaire items. See Sect. 4.1 for more detailed information. The numbers of [S1] are the same as [T1].

Note 3: The total exceeds 100% because multiple answers were allowed, such as [S3].

Note 4: On the views on online classes and expectations to online classes.

  • As the original questionnaire items have many variations between institutions, the Appendix simplified and divided them into two categories, Positive and Negative.

  • The total exceeds 100% because multiple answers were allowed, such as [S2].

Note 5: The original data were answered on a 5-point scale (such as [S2]) or a 0–10 point scale (such as[S4]). The results are presented here in %.

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Sunaoka, K., Sugie, S. (2022). Remote Chinese Teaching and Learning at Japanese Universities During the COVID-19 Pandemic. In: Liu, S. (eds) Teaching the Chinese Language Remotely. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-87055-3_9

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