Skip to main content

Instructors’ Social, Cognitive, and Teaching Presences in Emergency Remote Teaching of Chinese Language in the United States: A Qualitative Study

  • 147 Accesses

Abstract

Guided by Community of Inquiry (Garrison and Vaughan, Blended learning in higher education: Framework, principles, and guidelines. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 2008), this study investigated faculty’s cognitive, social, and teaching presences in teaching Chinese as a foreign language classroom during emergency remote teaching (ERT) necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic during the spring semester of 2020. The study collected data from five videoconferencing interviews with five faculty participants. The five participants, purposefully sampled, taught Chinese language classes across varying proficiency levels from five different four-year college institutions in the United States. The study analyzed the engagement strategies the participants employed in organizing their social, cognitive, and teaching presences. It further suggests pedagogical implications and future research for language instructors, teacher education programs, and university administrators to consider.

Keywords

  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Emergency remote teaching (ERT)
  • Engagement strategies
  • Community of Inquiry
  • Technological pedagogical content knowledge
  • Chinese language teaching

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-87055-3_13
  • Chapter length: 30 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-030-87055-3
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Bair, D., & Bair, M. (2011). Paradoxes of online teaching. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 5(2), 1–15.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bolliger, D. U., & Wasilik, O. (2009). Factors influencing faculty satisfaction with online teaching and learning in higher education. Distance Education, 30(1), 103–116.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chai, C. S., Chin, C. K., Koh, J. H. L., & Tan, C. L. (2013). Exploring Singaporean Chinese language teachers’ technological pedagogical content knowledge and its relationship to the teachers’ pedagogical beliefs. Asia-pacific Education Researcher, 22(4), 657–666.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Chen, B., deNoyelles, A., Patton, K., & Zydney, J. (2017). Creating a community of inquiry in large-enrollment online courses: An exploratory study on the effect of protocols within online discussions. Online Learning, 21(1), 165–188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chickering, A. W., & Gamson, Z. F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39(7), 3–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Donato, R. (2004). Aspects of collaboration in pedagogical discourse. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 24, 284–302.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2–3), 87–105.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2001). Critical thinking, cognitive presence, and computer conferencing in distance education. American Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), 7–23.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garrison, D. R., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157–172.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garrison, D. R., & Vaughan, N. D. (2008). Blended learning in higher education: Framework, principles, and guidelines. Jossey-Bass Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guion, L. (2002). Triangulation: Establishing the validity of qualitative studies. EDIS, 2002(6), 3.

    Google Scholar 

  • Handelsman, M. M., Briggs, W. L., Sullivan, N., & Towler, A. (2005). A measure of college student course engagement. The Journal of Educational Research, 98(3), 184–191.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hodges, C., Moore, S., Lockee, B., Trust, T., & Bond, A. (2020, March 27). The difference between emergency remote teaching and online learning. Educause Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2020/3/the-difference-between-emergency-remote-teaching-and-online-learning

  • Laurillard, D. (2000). New technologies and the curriculum. In P. Scott (Ed.), Higher education re-formed (pp. 133–153). Falmer Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lee, C.-Y. (2009). A case study of using synchronous computer-mediated communication system for spoken English teaching and learning based on sociocultural theory and communicative language teaching approach curriculum [Unpublished doctoral thesis], Ohio University, Ohio.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liao, W., Yuan, R., & Zhang, H. (2017). Chinese language teachers’ challenges in teaching in U.S. Public Schools: A dynamic portrayal. Asia-Pacific Edu Research, 26(6), 369–381.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Liu, S. J. (2020). Learning the Chinese language on a non-traditional path: A case study. The Language Learning Journal. https://doi.org/10.1080/09571736.2020.1811370

  • Martin, F., & Bolliger, D. U. (2018). Engagement matters: Student perceptions on the importance of engagement strategies in the online learning environment. Online Learning, 22(1), 205–222.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. The Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.

    Google Scholar 

  • Moore, M. J. (1993). Three types of interaction. In K. Harry, M. John, & D. Keegan (Eds.), Distance education theory (pp. 19–24). Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Romig, N. (2009). Acculturation of four Chinese teachers teaching in the United States: An ethnographic study. Doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University. www.lib.msu.edu

  • Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage Publications Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shea, P., Li, C. S., & Pickett, A. (2006). A study of teaching presence and student sense of learning community in fully online and web-enhanced college courses. The Internet and Higher Education, 9(3), 175–190.

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, C. M., & Chaw, L. Y. (2016). Digital literacy: A prerequisite for effective learning in a blended learning environment? The Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 14(1), 54–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Teddlie, C., & Tashakkori, A. (2008). Foundations of mixed methods research: Integrating quantitative and qualitative approaches in the social and behavioral sciences. Sage Publications, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  • Trochim, W. (2006). Research methods knowledge base. https://conjointly.com/kb/

  • Warschauer, M. (2000). The changing global economy and the future of English teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 34(3), 511–535. https://doi.org/10.2307/3587741

  • Wu, C. (2020). Analysis of learner uptake in response to corrective feedback in advanced foreign language classrooms. Applied Linguistics Research Journal, 4(4), 1–29.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ching-Hsuan Wu .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Wu, CH., Huang, L. (2022). Instructors’ Social, Cognitive, and Teaching Presences in Emergency Remote Teaching of Chinese Language in the United States: A Qualitative Study. In: Liu, S. (eds) Teaching the Chinese Language Remotely. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-87055-3_13

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-87055-3_13

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-030-87054-6

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-030-87055-3

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)