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Nanomaterials to Improve Bio-Oil from Biomass Pyrolysis: State-Of-Art and Challenges

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Part of the Engineering Materials book series (ENG.MAT.)


Catalytic pyrolysis is a thermochemical conversion process that has emerged as a suitable technology for converting biomass into energy vectors. Among the energy vectors, the production of bio-oil stands out, which can represent an intermediate product of great value for industry, in particular for biorefineries, where it can be integrated in co-processing for the synthesis of liquid fuels, or in the synthesis of others chemical products of commercial interest. However, the feasibility of biomass pyrolysis is conditioned by the limited efficiency and quality of the bio-oils obtained, especially by the formation of corrosive oxygen compounds and the high water content. Therefore, it is essential to explore pyrolysis technologies and catalytic pyrolysis concepts, with low cost catalysts, in order to increase oil yield and suppress the formation of undesirable compounds. Thus, the development and application of different catalytic materials have been explored with the objective of promoting the improvement of yield and quality of bio-oil. Among the methods applied, the catalytic cracking of biomass pyrolysis vapors stands out. The influence of catalysts on the composition and yield of pyrolysis products, particularly bio-oil, is directly related to the characteristics of the catalytic materials. For example, specific surface area, number of active sites, pore size, particle size are among the characteristics that most influence the performance of the material catalytic activity. Therefore, particular attention is focused on materials with improved properties, such as nanomaterials. In this context, this chapter presents a review on the development and application of several classes of materials in catalytic pyrolysis processes and technology, their properties and its influence on the bio-oil production and characteristics, with particular emphasis on nanomaterials. Relevant aspects on challenges and future perspectives in the development and application of nanomaterials as catalysts in pyrolysis processes are also addressed.


  • Nanomaterials
  • Bio-oil
  • Biomass
  • Pyrolysis
  • Catalysts

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Aesculus chinesis Bunge Seed


Biochar-based nanocatalysts


Benzene, tuluene, xylene


Circulating fluidized bed


Diferential Scanning Calometry


Ensyn Technologies, Inc.


Ferro rice husk hydrochar


Ferro rice husk hydrochar wet impregnation


Ferro wet impregnation biochar


Fast pyrolysis


Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry


Hydrothermal carbonization




Intermediate pyrolysis




National Renewable Energy Laboratory


Slow pyrolysis


Transmission electron microscopy


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


X-ray diffraction




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The authors would like to thank the Human Resources Program of the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (PRH-ANP 13.1; grant number 042319) and the Coordination for Improvement in Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) for the financial support. Thanks are due to the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT)/Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) for the financial support to CESAM (UIDP/50017/2020+UIDB/50017/2020), through national funds.

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Hauschild, T., da Cruz Tarelho, L.A., Bergmann, C.P., Basegio, T.M. (2022). Nanomaterials to Improve Bio-Oil from Biomass Pyrolysis: State-Of-Art and Challenges. In: Kopp Alves, A. (eds) Environmental Applications of Nanomaterials. Engineering Materials. Springer, Cham.

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